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Mass Media Literacy

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Abdelhamid Mahmoud

on 22 February 2017

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Transcript of Mass Media Literacy

Characteristics of New Media Environment
Media Convergence
Distinct technologies such as printing and broadcasting are merging
We are shifting from one-way to interactive media
We are shifting from content geared to mass audiences to content tailored for groups or individuals
We are shifting from media scarcity to media abundance to the extent that audiences are suffering from an information overload

The coming together of media services or channels that have been separate in the traditional media

Convergence is seen in the Internet, television, cable and telephone

Thursday, February 2, 2017
Chapter 1
The media impacts our daily life
What are the Mass Media Channels?
Technology-assisted transmission of messages to mass or large faraway audiences.

Mass communication differs from interpersonal communication and group communication.

Interpersonal communication:
between two individuals and is usually face-to-face
Group communication:
more than one person. Also face-to-face.
The mass audience is beyond the communicator’s horizon, sometimes thousands of miles away.
The mass audience is diverse and heterogeneous (Male, female, young, old, liberal, conservative…etc.).
Response to a message.
The mass audience lacks the immediate feedback to the message that only takes place in interpersonal and group communication. A letter to the editor or a program call-in lacks immediacy.

Mass Media Literacy
Mass communication
Mass Media Channels include:
The internet

Dr. Rasha Allam
Media Multi-Tasking
The simultaneous exposure to more than one medium, such as reading a newspaper and tuning to television or listening to the radio and simultaneously surfing the Net.

The Process of Communication
It consists of Six terms

Mass Communication is Defined by three Characteristics

1. It is directed toward relatively large, diverse, and anonymous audiences.
2. Messages are transmitted publicly, are often timed to reach most audience members simultaneously.
3. The communicator tends to be or operate within a complex organization that may involve great expense.

What Makes Communication Important
Personal dependence: We need media for news and information, for entertainment, amusement and diversion and for the exchange of ideas.

Information: through the mass media that people learn what’s going on beyond the horizon. The media are also a vehicle through which leaders communicate with the public.

The heart of the media’s information function
News is the most visible mass-media-delivered information.

Advertising also offers information that help consumers make intelligent decisions.

Movies, Radio, Television, and even newspapers are entertaining.

The blend between information and entertainment is referred to as infotainment.

Almost all media have an entertainment element
Opinion formation

Persuasion through editorials and commentaries.
News media must separate opinion or commentary from news.
Advertisements are also persuasive
Ads persuade audiences to take action
Public relations seek to persuade but usually not induce immediate action like advertising.
PR tries to shape attitudes

The Marketplace of Ideas
The marketplace of ideas: The concept that a robust exchange of ideas with none barred, yields better consensus.

The concept was introduced by thinker and novelist John Milton who said “Let truth and falsehood grapple”

Milton’s idea was that individuals can use their power of reasoning to improve their situation and come to know great truths by exchanging ideas freely.

Persuasive media discourse
The media are the primary vehicle for persuasive discourse.

The role of persuasion is important in a democratic society, where public policy bubbles up from the citizenry over time.

Media debates about driving age, drinking, smoking, organ transplants, or women rights affect policy.

Hegelian Dialectic Concept
The art or practice of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments is explained by German philosopher Hegel in his dialectic concept.

Hegel’s dialectic involves arriving at the truth by stating a thesis (argument or proposition), developing a contradictory antithesis (counter-argument or counter-propositions), and combining and resolving them into a coherent synthesis.

What is the role of persuasion in a modern society?
Mobilization & Consensus

Leaders use mass media as to mobilize people and unify them behind their cause, especially at times of political crisis and wars

Mass media help in bringing societal consensus especially for change in serious issues that deal with human rights, racism, government policies, laws and regulations

What is Media Literacy ?
Media Literacy

Media literacy has various levels. Understanding the dynamics that shape media content is one of these levels.

Possessing knowledge about the mass media that makes you competent in assessing messages carried by the mass media.
Economics explains a lot about media behavior.
To survive media companies need to build an audience to attract advertisers and to have enough direct sales.

Personalities can be a dynamic that shape media content. The boss at a publishing house decides which book to push and which book to cancel.

Dynamics of media literacy
Media People
Rupert Murdoch. A media tycoon

Murdoch’s media empire includes 20th Century Fox, HarperCollins Books, the Wall Street Journal and other newspapers, and satcast companies on several continents

Satcast is broadcasting directly to consumers via satellite

Fox news is biased to the conservative right political wing

The Murdoch’s empire operates under the New Corp.

Media Effects
Media Issues
Media Awareness
Message Form
Message Vs. Messenger
Media messages influence our daily decisions in ways we often don’t recognize.

But because media is also dependent on audiences, we influence the media as well.

Public dialogue on today’s great social, political, economic and cultural issues by which we will define our future as a society requires keen levels of media literacy.

For citizens to sort through such issues requires that they have a comeptent level of media literacy.

Most of our media exposure is invisible or at least unnoticed at a conscious level. The background music at the mall or billboard on the road.

one-on-one message and mass messages
Identify the source to think beyond the message.

Media and Society
Consensus & Cohesion

Newspapers, books and radio unified audiences. People across geographically huge diverse areas within the United States found themselves culturally bound. Television networks later added to the cultural cohesion.

The mass media are essential to process of society identifying values. To bring about social consensus.

Culture & Values
Mass media bind communities together and provide a shared experience and a common identity among audiences

News reporting of the death of princess Diana affected people worldwide created a unified grieving reaction.

Mass media fosters accepted shared values among members of society.

Demassification in media focus on narrower audience segments.

Demassification began on a large scale with radio in the 1950s when radio networks such as NBC, CBS, and ABC shifted their most popular programming to television.

The new radio programming was designed not for universal appeal but for a sub-mass audience: a section of the largest mass audience, with niche interests.

Media demassification accelerated in the 1980s
Technology gave the cable television industry the ability to deliver dozens of channels.
Most channels focused on audience niches, sports, food, drama, etc
The term narrowcasting as opposed to broadcasting refers to seeking niche audiences as opposed to broadcasting’s traditional audience-building concept.

Individuals select what messages to receive
For example, television viewers hardly go beyond the 15 or so channels.
They don’t watch the 500 channels. They only select what coincides with their interests and biases.

The mass media no longer act as just vehicles for consensus-building and social cohesion.

In the new media environment, the media also act as vehicles for isolation

Media Economics
Advertising funds media

Newspapers and magazines sell space to advertisers to reach potential customers. TV and radio sell airtime.
Advertisers subsidize media costs for consumers.

Advertising creates a conflict in some media companies. Serve the interest of the advertiser or the interest of the public?

Corporate Structures
Media Chains: Big media companies with cross-ownerships.

Gannet chain: biggest chain in the US
Owns 99 daily newspapers including USA Today, 17 dailies in Britain, TV stations, magazines, billboards, radio, polling and other enterprises.

Largest US media companies include Time Warner, Viacom, and Disney.

Company that owns media companies as well as other businesses that are unrelated to the media business.
e.g. Sony owns Columbia Picture film company

Can you think of any Egyptian media Conglomerates?

Negative effects of Conglomeration
Positive effects of conglomeration


Corporate instability.

Stronger financial base.

Partners for content.

Opening global markets.

Types of Integration
A- Diagonal Integration: an expansion that occurs when firms diversify into new business areas. i.e. newspaper publisher may expand diagonally into television broadcasting. Or radio companies may diversify into magazine publishing.

Media companies that own more than one type of media property: newspapers, magazines, TV and radio.

Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation owns newspapers.

Vertical Integration: it involves expanding either forward into succeeding stages or backward into preceding stages in the supply chain.

Horizontal Integration: it involves expanding within the same type of media.

Three important Mass Media Concepts to understand American Media
The mass media are profit centered businesses.

The primary goal of the American media is to make money.
Who controls the Messages: all the American media are privately owned except the PBS and the NPR-National Public Radio.

Technological developments are an integral part of changes in the way mass media are delivered and consumed.

Mass media both reflect and affect politics, society and culture.

Thank You
Media Exposure: People spend one-third of their time with the mass media.
Lasswell Model
Who says What
In which channel
To whom
With what effect
Communication Model
Advertising and Propaganda
Full transcript