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APUSH CHAP 27: THE GLOBAL CRISIS
Transcript of APUSH CHAP 27: THE GLOBAL CRISIS
The Rise of Isolationism In order to prevent the US from being dragged into looming European war, the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937. They established military arms embargos against both victim and aggressor in any military conflict and warned citizens that travel on ships of warring nations was at their own risk. The 1937 act created the cash and carry policy, which allowed belligerents to purchase nonmilitary goods only with cash and transport them away with their own vessels. Cause for Isolationism When Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in October 1935, the League of Nations protested, and Mussolini responded by withdrawing Italy and joining the Axis. This strengthened support for isolationism. The Spanish Civil War also strengthened both US isolationism and neutrality FDR and Isolationism FDR did not fully agree with isolationism. He was especially concerned with Japanese aggression. In a 1937 speech in Chicago, he warned that Japan should be “quarantined” from the global community if they continued. Public response was hostile to his anti-isolationist view. However, only months later, Japanese zeroes bombed the US gunboat Panay in China as it sailed the Yangtze River. Though it was in broad daylight and the ship had a large American flag on it, Japan claimed it was an accident and isolationists seized the Japanese apology and pressured the administration to overlook the attack. Failure of Munich Hitler began German expansion when he occupied France and pressured Austria into a union. Willing to prevent a crisis at all costs, leaders of France and Britain met with Hitler in Munich on September 29, 1938. France and Britain had agreed to Hitler’s claim in Czechoslovakia if Hitler swore to expand no farther. Prime Minster Neville Chamberlain was credited with assuring peace for Europe. However, Munich “appeasement” failed when Hitler conquered Czechoslovakia in March and in April began threatening Poland. Non Agression Act and
the Start of WWII Britain and France assured Poland that they would support them if Hitler followed through on his threats, and they tried to get Stalin to provide mutual defense. Angered that he had not even been invited to the Munich Conference, Stalin ignored their requests and signed a nonaggression pact with Germany in August 1939.With Russia out of the way, Germany staged an incident on the border of Poland, claiming he had been attacked and launched a full-scale invasion of Poland. Britain and France declared war two days later, September 3, 1939. World War II began. Hitler mocking FDR about German Expansion Neutrality tested FDR wanted to help the Allies by making armaments available to them. He had the Neutrality Acts allow sale of arms to warring nations. American ships were still not allowed into war zones, but belligerents could purchase military items on the same cash and carry basis as previously stated with nonmilitary items. Taking advantage of the war, the Soviets overran Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania and later invaded Finland. The US stopped shipments of arms to Russia, but little more than that.
From Neutrality to Intervention Spring 1940, Hitler launched an invasion of Western Europe, taking Denmark and Norway, then Netherlands and Belgium, and finally, after Italy joined the war, France. The Allies were futile against the Nazi blitzkrieg. France fell quickly, and on June 22nd, Nazi forces marched into Paris. FDR quickly began increasing both US defenses and support to the Allies, notably Britain. He did so without opposition because of shifting public opinion. Most people saw Germany as a direct threat to the US. FDR also instituted the first peace time draft. American Committees Several groups arose to lobby for their opinions. The Committee to Defend America supported increased support for America; the Fight for Freedom Committee wanted an immediate declaration of war; America First Committee was totally isolationist and supported by many prominent Republican leaders (as well as fringe Nazi supporters and anti-Semites). The Third Term Campaign FDR broke tradition and ran for a third term. Since the issue of the 1940 election was the war, FDR took a moderate stance, favoring neither extreme isolationism nor intervention. Because of this, the Republicans had to nominate a moderate as well that being businessman, Wendell Willkie. Both parties took the same stance of assistance to the Allies but keeping America out of war. Though Willkie attracted more Republican support than anyone in decades, FDR won decisively, 55% of popular votes and 449 electoral votes to Willkie’s 82. Neutrality Abandoned In December 1940, Britain was broke and could no longer meet cash-and-carry requirements. FDR created the “lend-lease” system to continue aid to them, so they could lend and lease armaments to any nation deemed vital to the US’s defense. To protect supplies from Nazi U-boats, America began patrolling the Atlantic as far east as Iceland and radioing British ships about Nazi submarine locations. Roosevelt argued this was “hemispheric defense,” and all US boats were still in a neutral zone. Aid to USSR and Naval War Fall 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. When they did not surrender, FDR extended lend-lease privileges to the USSR. Now that the US was aiding German enemies on two fronts, Nazi submarines began a campaign against US ships. After several successful U-boat attacks, US merchant vessels began to be fully armed and sent all the way into belligerent ports, in effect creating a naval war with Germany. Pearl Harbor In September 1940, Japan signed the Tripartite Act, extending the Axis into Asia.When Tokyo failed to respond to FDR’s harsh warnings against continued Japanese aggression, he froze all Japanese assets in the US and established a complete trade embargo, war was imminent. Intelligence foretold of a Japanese attack on November 29th.On Sunday December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers took off from aircraft carriers and bombed Pearl Harbor in two waves. The US lost 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other vessels, 188 airplanes, and several vital shore installations. More than 2000 soldiers and sailors died, and another 1000 were injured.