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communication disorders

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michelle gavin

on 2 November 2013

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Transcript of communication disorders

communication is the process of sharing information and involves many communication functions.
educational considerations
IDEA requires children within the public school
system a special education and related services
at free of charge from ages of 3-21
Communication Disorders
Developmental Disabilities
Susan Hutchinson
Michelle Gavin

listen intensively when child
speaks.
many children go unnoticed with a speech-language disorder until school age; IT IS IMPORTANT FOR TEACHERS/PARENTS TO CATCH THE DISABILITY BEFORE IT'S TOO LATE!
language
speech
is made up of socially
shared rules
is the verbal means of
communicating- usually a person has
problems creating or forming speech sounds needed to communicate
with others.
Language has three primary language disorders;
Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
Early Expressive Language Delay (EELD)
Language-Based Reading Impairment (LBRI)
refers to a language disorder that has no identifiable cause; it is an UNEXPECTED and EXPLAINED variation in the acquisition of language.
refers to a significant lag in expressive language that the child won't outgrow. (i.e., the child doesn't have a 50-word vocabulary or use 2-word utterances by age 2).
involves a reading problem based on a language disorder. the disorder CANNOT be identified until the child begins learning to read and has problems.
involves testing and evaluation
during which it is determined
if the scores/performance are
"substantially below" develop-
mental expectations.
the classroom teacher should really focus on three main areas:
diagnosis/treatment
most common 3 are:
1. articulation disorders
2. voice disorders
3. disfluency
Language
mixed receptive-expressive language disorder
involves problems like comprehending commands of others. It effects speaking, understanding, reading, and writing.
semantic pragmatic disorder
Semantic-
Memory for the meaning of words, interpretation behind a word.
Pragmatic-
Concerned with the facts, or actual occurrence.

It's first identified between ages 18 months to 2 years.
These children ignore their names in the early years yet react to the ring of telephone or the door bell.
At times one wonders if perhaps the child is deaf because they do not appear to respond to his or her name.
Speech Disorders
articulation disorders
involves errors producing sounds;
an individual omits, substitutes, distorts, or adds
speech sounds (ex. lisping); this can make it hard
for a speaker to be understood or even unintelligable
voice disorders
misuse/abuse to the voice can lead to temporarily
abnormal; characterized by pitch, loudness, and/or
abuse to the larynx
disfluency
hesitations, repetitions, and other interruptions of normal speech flow are part of learning the use of language, but when the interruptions are so intense and so frequent, that is when you should be worried (ex. stuttering)
provide appropriate models of speech and language for children to imitate
encourage children to use their communication skills appropriately
-facilitating the social use of language
-question asking
-teaching literacy: reading and written language
teachers should get a copy of IEP, (if they don't already), so they know what accommodations must be done
if a child is thought of having a SLD, parents and teachers/SPLs should work together to figure out
what's best for the child.
motor-speech disorders
this includes problems in speaking due to neuromotor damage, which are: DYSARTHIA and APRAXIA.
Dysarthria
Speaking difficulties may occur when
a child has a hard time controlling the
muscles that involve breathing;
larynx,
throat, tongue or jaw.
injuries to the brain can cause
peripheral
and
central
dysfunction
the transmission of messages controlling the motor movements for speech is interrupted; because it involves problems with the transfer of information from the nervous system to the muscles, dysarthria is classified as a neuromotor disorder.
Apraxia
Vowels are more easy to say than consanants.
Apraxia is a planning/programming problem not a movement problem like Dysarthria.
Apraxia is a disorder of the brain and nervous system in which a person is unable to perform tasks or movements when asked, even though, 1. the request or command is understood, 2. they are willing to perform the task, 3. the muscles needed to perform the task work properly, and 4. the task may have already been learned.
Most known causes include: brain injury, stroke, dementia, brain tumor, and neurodegenerative illness
(worsening of central nervous system and brain)
.
May be seen at birth, symptoms appear as the child grows and develops. The cause is
unknown
.
Dysarthria is when you have difficulty saying words because of problems with the muscles that help you talk.
Speech-language therapy is the treatment for most kids with speech and/or language disorders.
These therapists use a wide variety of strategies including;
Language intervention activities:
The SLP will interact with a child by playing and talking, using pictures, books, objects, or ongoing events to stimulate language development. The therapist may also model correct pronunciation and use repetition exercises to build speech and language skills.
Articulation therapy:
Articulation, or sound production, exercises involve having the therapist model correct sounds and syllables for a child, often during play activities. The level of play is age-appropriate and related to the child's specific needs. The SLP will physically show the child how to make certain sounds, such as the "r" sound, and may demonstrate how to move the tongue to produce specific sounds.
Oral-motor/feeding and swallowing therapy:
The SLP will use a variety of oral exercises — including facial massage and various tongue, lip, and jaw exercises — to strengthen the muscles of the mouth. The SLP also may work with different food textures and temperatures to increase a child's oral awareness during eating and swallowing.
When Is Therapy Needed?

Kids might need speech-language therapy for a variety of reasons, including:
•hearing impairments
•cognitive (intellectual, thinking) or other developmental delays
•weak oral muscles
•excessive drooling
•chronic hoarseness
•birth defects such as cleft lip or cleft palate
•autism
•motor planning problems
•respiratory problems (breathing disorders)
•feeding and swallowing disorders
•traumatic brain injury

Therapy should begin as soon as possible. Children enrolled in therapy early (before they're 5 years old) tend to have better outcomes than those who begin therapy later.

This does not mean that older kids can't make progress in therapy; they may progress at a slower rate because they often have learned patterns that need to be changed.
Psychological therapy
(psychotherapy, counseling, or cognitive behavioral therapy)
is also recommended because of the possibility of related emotional or behavioral problems.
different types of tests can be done for speech and language problems.
speech
language
Denver Articulation Screening Examination
Early Language Milestone Scale
Denver II
Peabody Picture Test Revised

A hearing test may also be done.
A medical history may reveal that the child has close relatives who have also had speech and language problems.
Any child suspected of having this disorder can have standardized receptive and expressive language tests.
An audiogram should also be done to rule out deafness, which is one of the most common causes of language problems.
The teacher must work with the parents and the special educator or the speech-language pathologist to help the student reach his or her full potential. This is also important for the parents of these children to remember that they will benefit their child by working with the child’s teacher.
Speech-language pathology services can help children become excellent communicators, problem-solvers and decision-makers.
Early identification and intervention are extremely important in order to foster language and social growth and to give children the best possible foundation for formal schooling.
Some of the basic traits that a teacher should have, like listening attentively when children speak, providing an appropriate model of speech and language, and encouraging the children to imitate the correct speech and language can be a major help to the students with communication disorders and may end up preventing some of these disorders in the first place.
In addition to diagnosing the nature of a child’s speech-language difficulties, speech-language pathologists also provide individual therapy for the child; consult with the child’s teacher about the most effective ways to facilitate the child’s communication in the class setting; and work closely with the family to develop goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home.
Speech and/or language therapy may continue throughout a student’s school years either in the form of direct therapy or on a consultant basis.
Communication refers to oral motor function. It can range from delays and simple sound substitute to the inability to understand/use their native language.
In general, communication disorders commonly refer to problems in speech (comprehension and/or use of expression) that significantly interfere with an individuals achievement and/or quality of life
there are two types of communication disorders:
language
&
speech
cant get their meaning or message across to others (expressive language disorder), or understanding the message coming from others (receptive language disorder)
What are some language disorders?
expressive language disorder (ELD)

mixed-receptive language disorder

specific language impairment (SLI)
early expressive language delay (EELD)

language based reading impairment

semantic pragmatic disorder
what is a communication disorder?
involves speech and language
a person has trouble with areas such as oral motor function
can be a simple sound substitute or something more major like not understanding native language
what are some tests that can be done for children with a communication disorder?
a hearing
Denver Articulation Screening Exam
Early Language Milestone Exam
receptive and expressive language tests
what are the educational considerations for children with a communication disorder?
set up the classroom so that it is acoustic: Research indicates that levels of background noise and reverberation, little noticed by adults, adversely affect learning environments for young children, who require optimal conditions for hearing and comprehension.
pay attention to how the child talks; encourage the use of
social communication APPROPRIATELY!
child should go through early intervention if the child could have a communication disorder
teachers/parents/and SLPs should work together to help child's needs
teacher needs to accommodate to child's needs
what are some speech disorders?
voice
fluency/disfluency
motor-speech disorders
phonological disorders
phonological disorders
child does not understand the rules for producing sounds of language, has the inability to say words correctly due to abnormal development
primary language disorder
secondary language disorder
have no known cause
caused by another condition
cause
There really is no known cause to children with a primary language disorder.
It often occurs because of other disabilities a child might have (brain injury, learning disability, or intellectual disability).

Secondary language disorder is caused by another condition such as a hearing impairment, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy).
A parent is more likely to notice their child has a disability. It is normal to see one or two warning signs, however if you see several warning signs
throughout a long period of time, that's when it's a problem.
It can develop naturally at birth; to develop language, a child must be able to hear, see, understand, and remember. Children must also have the physical ability to form speech.
characteristics
preschool
grade k-4
speaks later than most children
pronunciation problems
slow vocabulary growth, often unable to find the right word
difficulty rhyming words
slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds
confuses basic words (eat, run, want)
makes consistent reading/spelling errors including letter reversal (b/d), inversions (m/w), transpositions (felt, left), and substitutions (house/home)
slow to remember facts
impulsive, difficulty planning
unstable pencil grip
poor coordination, unaware of physical surroundings
grades 5-8
avoids reading aloud
trouble with word problems
avoids writing assignments
difficulty with handwriting
high school students and adults
continues to spell incorrectly
avoids reading and writing
trouble summarizing
poor concept of abstract concepts
either pays too little attention to detail or too much
trouble with open-ended questions on tests
Full transcript