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Resources and Energy Resources

Miller Chapters 14,15, and 16
by

Michael Stano

on 31 March 2016

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Transcript of Resources and Energy Resources

Resources and Energy Resources
Geological Processes
This is Earth
Core
Inner
Outer
Mantle
aesthenosphere
innermost zone
solid
semi solid
solid rock
partly melted rock
"Plastic"
Crust
Continental
Oceanic
Thick less dense
Thin more dense
Lithosphere
Combination of the crust
and aesthenosphere
http://geon.unavco.org/unavco/IDV_datasource_geodyn.html
driven by differences in
heat within the Earth's
Interior

drives motions of the
plates

Convergent
Divergent
Transform
Earthquakes
Volcanoes
Mineral Resources
a conc. of naturally occuring material that can be extracted and processed
High Grade Ore
Low Grade Ore
Ghana
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/geo_nat_res-geography-natural-resources
Drilling
Magnetic Images
Gravity fields
radioactivity
Exploration
Extraction
Subsurface Mining
Surface Mining
open pit
strip
contour strip
mountain top removal
used to extract resources to
deep to be extracted from the
surface
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bk-jrbCi7Sc
Pros
very little disturbance to surface of Earth
produce less waste
Cons
Subsidence
land caves in
more dangerous
more expensive
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7CD2xyqF3E
Centralia PA
giant equipment strips away overburden
soil and rock overlying
useful mineral
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWlcqdPJEPg
spoils
Ore is removed and processed
gangue
tailings
the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore
the commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral
nickel tailings
water and gravity
pulverize and chemicals
automated
magnetic
electrostatic
frothing
arsenic, cyanide, mercury, sulphur
Disposal
recycled
pond
dry stacking
underground storage
submarine tailing
phytoremediation
Global Mantle Temperatures
any method of surface coal mining that removes a mountaintop or ridgeline, whether or not the mined area will be returned to its approximate original contour
Clearing and Blasting
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44tm26Fhqr8&feature=related
involves excavating earth, rock, and other material to uncover a tabular, lens-shaped, or layered mineral reserve.
same as strip mining but applied to mountainous regions
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/10/gallery_mines/
easiest and cheapest way to do it. Open-pit mining is only used if the rocks or minerals are close to the surface of the land or if a normal tunnel-type of mine isn't possible.
Effects of Mining
damages land surface
spoil banks
tailing ponds
tailings where the water borne refuse material is pumped into a pond to allow the sedimentation (meaning separation) of solid particles from the water
dewatering tailings using vacuum or pressure filters so the tailings can then be stacked.
mix a certain quantity of tailings with waste aggregate and cement, creating a product that can be used to backfill
Tailings can be conveyed using a pipeline then discharged so as to eventually descend into the depths
uses plants for long-term stabilisation and containment of tailings, by sequestering pollutants in soil near the roots
attract wildlife - highly toxic
http://www.capp.ca/canadaIndustry/oilSands/Dialogue-Resources/oil-sands-videos/Pages/Oil-Sands-Tour.aspx#mCVBX6AIei2q
http://www.capp.ca/environmentCommunity/land/Pages/ProtectingWildlife.aspx#B9PIlWx5cHFI
subsidence
acid mine drainage
outflow of acidic water from (usually abandoned) metal mines or coal mines.
Bush 2002
Changes in the Clean Water Act by Bush Admin. in 2002 provided the loophole needed to allow coal companies to dump mining waste into our nation’s waterways,
Smelting
produce metal from ore
1
Diamonds are forever
Mining
Sorted
Cut
Manufacturing
Marketing
7 billion dollars
14 billion dollars
28 billion dollars
56 billion dollars
Kimberlite formations
volcanic rock containg diamonds
diamonds formed 1 - 4 bya under high heat and pressure
cooled so fast instead of turning in graphite solidified into diamond
Primary Deposits
Secondary Deposits
Diamondiferous pipes, which are ‘pipes’ of mineral-rich volcanic rock containing diamonds
Deposits that contain diamonds which have travelled some distance from their original source are referred to as secondary deposits.
alluvial
Artisian Mining
Open pit/strip
13 million ppl
approx 15% of the worlds diamonds are mined this way
85% production of the worlds diamonds
41%
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoJNwmZ74bU
Angola and Sierra Leone
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aaqQjIzIbiY
Funds Wars
blood diamonds/conflict diamonds
DeBeers owns 40% of the worlds diamonds
most cutting is done in NY and Antwerp Belgium
cut and polished
Nonrenewable Energy Sources
Oil
Coal
Nuclear
Natural Gas
82% of the worlds energy comes from nonrenewable energy sources
Early Man
2000 kilocalories/day
Modern Man
2000 kilocalories/day
+
600,000 kilocalories/day
Where does it come from?
Algae and other organic remains die and fall to sea floor
in anoxic conditions the rate of accum. is higher than decomp
heat and pressure build up
eventually hydrocarbons form (oil/natural gas)
may contain impurities
sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen
Light vs. Heavy
based on density, the higher the density usually the more impurities.
light crude oil yields higher price b/c you can get more gas and diesel refined from it
How do we get it?
Oil is extracted by drilling into deposits
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKMVxxQRl54
Refining
heated and distilled based on boiling pts. of petrochemicals
Who controls the oil?
OPEC
Oil Petroleum Exporting Countries
Peak oil production leveled off in 2005
leading to increase of oil prices per barrel
50 - 140 a barrel
100 per barrel
what does this lead to?
USA
we produce 9% of worlds oil, and use 24% of worlds oil
Alaskan Pipeline and Alaskan Tankers
offshore drilling
1 barrel of oil = 42 gallons
1 barrel of oil makes 20 gallons of gas
US Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Tundra biome, very fragile ecosystem
1 year supply of oil
ConocoPhillips will begin drilling 2014/15
As of now no drilling
1998 - leasing agreements began
2005 - Bush eliminates reservations to critical areas
Heavy Oil and Tar Sands
mixture of clay, sand, water mixed with bitumen
bitumen - heavy oil with a high sulfur content
http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-18560_162-1225184.html?tag=contentMain;contentBody
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkwoRivP17A
Shale Oil?
rock containing a mixture of
hydrocarbons called kerogen
Green River Formation in Colorado is the biggest reserve of shale oil in the world.
highly impure with sulfur, nitrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons
Unfortunately it is hard to process and refine
200 years of fuel at current US rates
http://newenergyandfuel.com/http:/newenergyandfuel/com/2010/07/15/getting-to-all-that-shale-oil/
both require huge amounts of water
Algeria
Angola
Ecuador
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Libya
Nigeria
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Venezuela
Present OPEC
Members
prices of anything manufactured, transported, or dealing with oil will increase
Pros vs Cons
Oil
Pros vs cons
Oil Shale and Sands
Pros
Cons
Low Cost
50 year supply
High Net En
Easy Transport
Efficient distribution sys
Govt Subsidies
Enviro Costs?
CO2 released GHG
H2O pollution
Pros
Cons
Lg potential supply
Easy Transport
Mod Costs?
Low Net Energy
Huge Amounts of H2O needed
Major Land disruption
Air and Water Pollution
"Gasland"
Mixture of Gases
50-90%
methane CH4
found above oil deposits
http://www.nationalgridus.com/
the rest is ethane
propane
butane
LPG
liquefied petroleum gas
compressed natural gas
CNG
http://geology.com/oil-and-gas/natural-gas-production-map/
compress
compress
LNG
liquefied Natural Gas
Allows to be transported overseas
low net energy yield
Natural Gas
Pros
Cons
huge supply
low cost
high net energy yield
low CO2 emmissions
low land use
non renewable
govt. subsidies
Enviro Costs?
Country - Country shipping?
increase in Heat content
Fossil fuel formed about
350 mya
Power plants to coke for iron
Coal burning countries
China, United States, India
Clean coal technologies work on reducing harmful pollution from emmissions
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=goVXD4D1y5k
http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4969902n&tag=segementExtraScroller;housing
Coal
Pros
Cons
Huge Supply 200-1000 yrs
High Net yield
Low Cost
Well Developed
Major land Disruption
Envir Costs?
Govt Subsidies
High CO2 emmissions
Hg Emmissions
CCS
Gasification
SNG
Carbon Capture and
Sequestration
Synthetic Natural Gas
coal gasification
converting coal to methane, low net energy yield
Nuclear
Pros
Cons
Large Fuel Supply
Low Env Impact pending accidents
1/6 the emmissions of CO2 as coal
Needs Govt Subsidies
Low Net Energy Yield
Accidents no bueno
Wastes?
nuclear weapons
terrorists
Fission
Nuclear Reactor
Net efficiency is low, but power plant efficiency is high.
Hydraulic Fracturing
A process where Natural gas can be extracted from shale formations thousands of feet below the surface
Unfortunately "Fracking Fluid" may contain 100's of different chemicals which may be harmful, and contanimate ground water.
Typical Coal Fired Power plant
CHP
Combined Heat and Power
Combined heat and power captures waste heat as electricity is produced and recycles it to provide another energy service
exhaust gases
Can be coal, natural gas, or oil
33% efficient
75-95%
efficient
70-95% efficiency
Gas fired CHP
Gas Power Plant
66% Efficient
Combined Heat and Power
Fuel Rods - Uranium 235 processed into
Uranium dioxide, packed into tubes, which
makes up the fuel assembly
Control Rods - absorb neutrons, regulate fission
and power produced.
Coolant - usually water - removes heat, keeps fuel rods
from melting
containment shell - thick steel reinforced, concrete walls
surrounds core.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Uranium found in crust - 500x more abundant than gold
Uranium Mining -
open pit or subsurface
pitchblend U308
Milled - extracts uranium -
produces Uranium Oxide
converted and enriched to UF6 -
uranium hexaflouride
Enriched to U 235 - uranium 235
18-36 months
Used fuel is about 94% U-238 but it also contains almost 1% U-235 that has not fissioned, almost 1% plutonium and 4% fission products, which are highly radioactive,
Used nuclear fuel can be reprocessed to extract fissile materials for recycling and to reduce the volume of high-level wastes.
At the present time, there are no disposal facilities (as opposed to storage facilities) in operation in which used fuel, not destined for reprocessing, and the waste from reprocessing, can be placed
Wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle are categorised as high-, medium- or low-level wastes by the amount of radiation that they emit.
Storage is mostly in ponds at reactor sites
HLW - high level waste
reprocessed
fissionable materials reprocessed into fuel
270,000 tons
Disasters
3 mile island - Harrisburg PA - 1979
Chernobyl, Ukraine - 1986
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yiCXb1Nhd1o
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iv0Mivu-ceE
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
March 11 2011
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Q6C8US20jI&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Exh4n88WoO4&feature=fvsr
Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy

Energy Efficiency
Solar
Wind
Geothermal
biomass
Hydrogen
http://video.popularmechanics.com/services/player/bcpid1214137061?bctid=1233395616
http://www.gizmag.com/secret-energy-wind-turbine/14299/picture/111278//
Energy Conservation
a decrease in energy use based on reducing unecessary waste energy
drive less
take shorter showers
turn off lights when leaving a room
lower the heat in the winter
carpool
how much work we can get from each unit of energy
Energy efficient cars
LED lighting
Energy Efficient Appliances
http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/topten.jsp
LED Lighting comparison
http://eartheasy.com/live_led_bulbs_comparison.html
Energy Star
Program between EPA and DOE helping us all save money and protect the environment through energy efficient products and practices
37% more efficient
Prolongs fossil fuels
reduces oil imports
low cost
reduce pollution
help buy time to phase in renewables
creates jobs
How does Energy efficiency help us?
Types of Solar Heating
Passive Solar Heating
absorbs and stores heat from the sun directly within a well insulated structure w/o the need for pumps or fans to distribute heat.
using landscaping, house architecture and positioning, thermal mass
flooring, and insulation to keep houses cool in the summer and warm in the winter.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lobSCweC2Nk
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=so2Ni9YdeHw
Active solar Heating
absorbs suns energy from the sun by pumping heat absorbing fluid such as water or antifreeze solution through special collectors.
Pros
Cons
Energy is free
No CO2 emmissions
Very low air and water pollution
Low land disturbance
Need Access to sun
Need heat storage
High Cost Active
Aesthetics
Active needs collectors, maintenance and repairs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li7dBPrjzns
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-SsJBobMpAk&feature=related
Solar thermal systems
concentrate and transform solar energy into high temperature thermal energy (heat), which then can be used to heat water or produce steam to produce electricity
Pros
Cons
No CO2 emissions
Fast construction
Mod. Net Energy
Low efficiency
high costs
environmental Costs
need sun
easily accessed
Photo Voltaic Cells
(PV)
Solar Cells
Cell are two layers of semiconductor material generally composed of silicon crystals.
Crystallized silicon is not a very good conductor of electricity,
But when impurities are intentionally added—a process called doping. an electric current can be generated.
Dye-Sensitized
Mono and poly crystalline
Amorphous or Thin Film
3 Types
Grid Tied vs. Off the Grid
Grid Tied Systems are "tied" into existing electric grids. i.e. LIPA/National Grid
Energy not used by your home is fed back into public energy supply
rebates or payment for excess energy
Off the grid systems are intended to supply all of your energy needs without any connections to public supply
Pros
Cons
high net enegy yield
work on cloudy days
Easily expanded and moved
quick installation
low impact
low land use
no CO2 emissions
reduce demands for fossil fuels
need access to sun
low efficiency - 10%
need battery system or back up generators
high initial investment
Must convert DC - AC
Water
Pros
Cons
high net energy
high efficiency
large untapped potential
low cost electricity
long life
no operational CO2 during use
may provide flood control
irrigation water
recreational areas
high construction costs
high environmental impact
danger of collapse
uproots people
possible high CO2 emissions as biomass decays
interupts fish migration
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2XSbDRi6wo&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RHMuFF0B-k&feature=related
Pros
Cons
High net energy yield
high efficiency
low electricity cost
low environmental impact
no CO2 emissions
quick construction
easily expanded
can be located at sea
land use below turbines
steady winds needed
may need back up system
plastic components manufactured from oil
high land use for wind farm
visual pollution
possible noise pollution
may intefere with birds and migration routes
Pros
Cons
Pros
Cons
Biomass
Biodiesel
lg potential supply in some areas
moderate costs
no net CO2 increase if harvested, burned, and replanted
sustainably
plantations can be located on poor land
may help restore degraded land
can make use of agricultural, timber, and urban wastes
Nonrenewable if unsustainably harvested
high impact
environmental costs not in market price
may increase CO2 emissions
soil erosion, water pollution, habitat loss
could compete with cropland
inefficiently burned
Reduced CO emissions
reduced CO2 emissions
high net energy yield for certain crops, oil palm, rapeseed
reduced hydrocarbon emissions
better gas mileage
potentially renewable
Increase NOx emissions
higher cost than diesel
environmental costs not in market price
may compete with growing food
habitat degradation and loss
complications with modern engines
Ethanol
Pros
Cons
high octane
some reduced CO2 emissions
high net energy yield, bagasse, switch grass
E85 or pure ethanol
potentially renewable
low driving range
corn low net energy yield
environmental costs
may compete with food
corrosive
Micro-hydroelectric power
Hydro power uses the kinetic energy of water to do work.
As far back as the Egyptians water has been used to do work and grind grains
Supplies 24% of the worlds energy to over 1 billion people
The amount of work or energy you get depends on the amount of water flowing and the "head"
the height from turbines in the power plant to the water surface
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kiH02Gfj_k8
Dam
Intake
Resevoir
Penstock
Turbine
Generator
Outflow
holds water back
body of water behind dam
controlled by a gate allows water to flow in by gravity
passage to turbine
transfers energy of moving water to generator
produces an electrical current by moving magnets inide more magnets and a coil
used water leaves here and enters river
http://www.microhydropower.com/
Takes kinetic energy of the wind, which is transfered through a rotor system to a generator to produce and electrical current.
Maple ridge farms
rotor blades
nacelle
capture wind's energy and convert it to rotational energy of shaft
electronic control unit
casing that holds the gearbox
increases speed of shaft between rotor hub and generator),
uses rotational energy of shaft to generate electricity using electromagnetism
generator
monitors system, shuts down turbine in case of malfunction and controls yaw mechanism
yaw controller
moves rotor to align with direction of wind
brakes
stop rotation of shaft in case of power overload or system failure
Gearbox
Europe is the leader in wind energy
Denmark, Germany and Spain produce 80% of the worlds wind turbines
produce 3/4 of the worlds wind power
NIMBY vs. PIMBY
Not in my back yard
put in my back yard
Farmers and ranchers
generates approx 3k to 10 k in royalty's per year
don't like the way it looks or sounds
people in populated areas
http://www.fastcompany.com/1687388/mit-scientists-create-self-repairing-solar-cells-that-double-efficiency
http://www.good.is/post/mit-makes-more-progress-on-printable-solar-cells/
http://www.gizmag.com/secret-energy-wind-turbine/14299/picture/111278/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmhXNRhNNDI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUSxbo_U7lQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCK5Jvzv1ts
Pros
Cons
high efficiency
moderate net energy
low CO2 emissions
low cost at sites where easily accessed
moderate environmental impact
need to find suitable
may be depleted
Possible air pollution
Noise and Odor H2S
Pros
Cons
can be produced from water
low environmental impact
may be produced from renewables
may substitute for oil
Easier to store than electricity
high efficiency fuel cells
safer than natural gas
Not found in nature H2
negative net energy (you need to put more Energy in, than you get out)
High Costs
Not readily available yet
short driving range for cars
no fuel distribution
Heat stored in soil, undergournd rocks, and fluids in Earth's mantle
temperatures are more constant and are warmer in winter and cooler in summer than air temperatures
can produce electricity and heat homes with steam from hydrothermal resevoirs
underground areas of superheated water
Iceland
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jisUBeYg4ko&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3Ei-eW2xPA
requires heat exchangers to transfer heat energy into, or out of the ground.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfUQy86ZMpQ&feature=plcp&context=C384f6b4UDOEgsToPDskJrDmPUEgwRhWOPZpt9Rmzq
plant materials (such as wood and agricultural waste) and animal wastes that can be burned as solid fuels, or converted into gaseous or liquid biofuels
Biomass
Biodiesel
ethanol
indirect forms of solar energy
used mostly in poor countries for heating and cooking needs
supplies 10% of worlds energy
wood pellets
wood
animal manure
grasses
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXkKSXRKlII&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WZmAePTPxyE
agricultural Waste
Need to plant fast growing woods,
such as pine, poplars, and sycamores
can be produced from plant based oils
from vegatable oil to soy oil
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TC9h78b2RM4
SVO
straight vegetable oil
you can grow it,
easily available,
renewable
http://www.greasecar.com/products
fermentation and distillation of sugars in plants such as sugar cane, corn, and switchgrass
gasohol
E85 (Ethanol)
10 - 20% ethanol
85% ethanol
Flex fuel Vehicles
Brazil - 45% of their cars run on E85
reduces oil imports
Corn ethanol - net energy yield 1-1.5 units
bagasse (byproduct of sugar cane) - 4.1 units
this is in Brazil, also created 1 million jobs - sugarcane
Combine hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to produce electricity
H2 provides more energy per gram than any other fuel
problem
Hydrogen is locked up in water
need energy to release it
may need fossil fuels to release it
How to store it
pressure vessels
tanks
solid metal hydrides
Safest way
http://www.gizmag.com/apple-fuel-cell-system-patent-application/20958/
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/25/apple-hydrogen-battery-phone-computer-plan_n_1169336.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k3n7sPYytQY
LWR vs HWR
light water reactor uses regular water as a coolant
Heavy water reactor uses deuterium as a coolant
http://www.nrc.gov/reactors.html
Full transcript