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The Conquest of the Visayas
General Martin Delgado
Leader of the Visayan patriots who decided to fight against Miller.
He ordered to burn the city to prevent the enemy from capturing it.
February 20, 1899- Americans landed full force.
The Kiram- Bates Treaty
General John C. Bates
tried to win the friendship of the Muslims by negotiating with them and treating them as equal.
The Battle of Pasong Tirad
Gregorio H. Del Pilar
Aguinaldo's trusted general
was ordered to remain behind as Aguinaldo and his men continue to advance.
Stage of Guerilla Warfare
Aguinaldo was no longer an effective leader at this stage.
Americans used cruel methods to persuade the Filipinos to cooperate with them.
1. Jaro 2. Santa Barbara 3. Oton 4. Mandurriao
February 22- Americans sent an expeditionary force to Cebu and the city surrendered to the enemy.
General Arcadio Maxilom and Leandro Fallon- commanded the cebu patriots who resorted to guerilla warfare.
sympathized with the Americans
was sent to Manila to ask General Otis to allow them to arm battalion to maintain peace and order.
were allowed to meet in a convention to frame a constitution.
submitted to President McKinley for approval
however, it was not taken seriously by
the American President, and
nothing came out of it.
Visayan Military District
issued in March 1
an order issued by General Otis providing for the creation of a military district to include Panay, Negros and Cebu.
Sultan of Jolo
insisted that Americans must not be allowed to occupy any other part of Sulu except the town proper Jolo.
insisted in collecting customs duties in places that were not occupied by the Americans.
August 20, 1899- an agreement was signed by General Bates and the Sultan of Jolo and its Datus known as the Bates Treaty.
"Sovereignty of the United States over the whole archipelago of Sulu and its dependencies is declared acknowledged" and that "the rights and dignities of His Highness, the Sultan and his datus shall be fully respected." Moreover, the Americans promised not to interfere in religious matters and not to persecute anybody on account of his religious beliefs. The Americans also agreed to pay the Sultan and his leading datus monthly salaries.
Aguinaldo Retreats to Palanan
September 6, 1900
Aguinaldo and his men reached Palanan, Isabela where he established his headquarters.
a narrow pass of 4,500 feet high where there is a good view of the surrounding country.
there was only one trail leading to it.
So narrow was the trail that only one man at a time could climb.
It was in this place that Del Pilar and sixty loyal soldiers positioned themselves.
December 2, 1899
Major Peyton March and his well-armed men proceeded toward Del Pilar's position.
The Filipino troops guarding the narrow pass fired at the Americans who had no recourse but to retreat.
Unfortunately, an Igorot guided the Americans to a secret trail leading to Del Pilar's men.
Del Pilar was killed by a bullet that passed through his neck.
The Americans left his body there for 2 days and on the third day the Igorots burried him.
was done by forcing water into the stomach of a person until it gets filled, then the person would be made to lie on his back and an American soldier would jump on his stomach.
Another form of torture is placing a rope around the persons neck, and then twisting it to choke him.
Another form was beating the victim until he became blue in the face.
In Samar, Americans also resorted to massacre to avenge the death of their comrades who were killed by Filipino Guerillas under the command of General Vicente Lukban.
The Americans also burned down the whole town of Balangiga and killed all men and even boys over 10 years old.
They also burned houses, blockade food from getting to the guerillas, reconcentrated pueblos
where diseases like cholera and malaria
reached epidemic proportions.
The Capture of Aguinaldo
Colonel Frederick Funston
planned the capture of Aguinaldo.
a Spaniard who joined the Filipino forces against the Americans to capture Aguinaldo.
April 1, 1901
Aguinaldo was brought to Manila where he took an oath of alligiance to the government of the United States.
In a proclamation, Aguinaldo appealed to the Filipino people to accept the "sovereignty of the United States."
The End of Guerilla Warfare
Filipino generals who refused to give up the fight:
Simeon Ola in Bicol
Roman Manalan in Pangasinan and Zambales
Manuel Tomines in Isabela
General Miguel Malvar
took over the leadership of the Filipino Government and fought the enemy in running battles.
to live outside the zones meant lack of protection and sure hunger.
* General Vicente Lukban
was captured in Samar
end of guerilla warfare in that province
General Malvar surrendered in order to save his people from brutalityof the enemy and hunger.
* In the case of Macario Sakay, patriots refused to surrender, but their effect
on the Americans was negligible.
Pacifying the Ladrones, Non-Christian and Moro People
July 4,1902 - official declaration of the end of war by President Theodore Roosevelt
which means thieves and bandits composed of the poor and uneducated peasants.
these groups continued to harass the newly-organized Philippine Scouts or the Filipinos serving the U.S. Army.
these groups believed in the power of prayers, rituals and amulets
were anti-foreigners and anti-caciques
Among them were:
*samahans and confradias of
> Ruperto Rios in Tayabas
>Apo Ipe Salvador in Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, and Pangasinan
>Papa Isio of Negros.
There were also:
>Pulajanes in Cebu led by Tabal Brothers
>Dios-Dios in Leyte led by Faustino Ablan and Papa Pablo in Samar
The non-Christian Filipinos and the Muslims in Sulu were "pacified" through the creation of two special provinces: the Moro Province in 1903 and Mountain Province in 1908.
The brutal military campaigns of the U.s. against them was revealed in the massacre at the Bud Dajo in 1906 in Sulu.
After 4 days of fighting, the U.S. Forces suffered 20 casualties and 70 men wounded.
All the Tausugs--men, women, and children and thousand of them were all killed.
by: Jeline Dia S. Laban