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monali dahale

on 8 January 2015

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-Kavita kadu
Sanket Bindra
Monali Dahale
Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT)


Fig.5 The lotus effect
Materials that experience a considerable change in properties with small change in the environment with respect to pH, temperature & atmospheric conditions.

Smart textiles integrate a high level of intelligence and can be divided into three subgroups:
a. Passive smart textiles
b.Active smart textiles
c. Very smart textiles

Shape memory polymers

A series of smart polymer fibres with a shape memory polyurethanes with varying hard-segment content are synthesized & spun into fibers through wet spinning.

The fibres showed less shape fixity but more shape recovery compared with the thin films.

The smart fibers may exert the recovery force of shape memory polymers to an extreme extent in the direction of the fiber axis and therefore provide a possibility for producing high-performance actuators.

Sensors, actuators, interconnections, a power supply, and control units are fundamental components of smart nanotextiles.

These components along with sensing elements, data transmission, and processing, can all be integrated into the textiles while retaining the usual tactile, flexible and comfortable properties of traditional textiles.

Inherently conducting polymers (ICPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a number of materials in the form of nanoparticles or nanofibres are all suitable materials for the development of smart nanotextiles

Smart nanotextiles
 Wearable electronics

Many applications of “smart” textiles stem from the combination of textiles and electronics (e-textiles).

The fundamental incompatibility of the rigid electronic components and a soft textile matrix create a significant barrier for spreading of this technology into wearables.

This problem motivated many recent efforts into the development of soft electronics for truly wearable smart textile.

The functionalization of high-performance textile fibers with conjugated polymers can produce conductive fibers with better electro-mechanical properties.
Textile-based conductive yarns/fibers prepared by coating viscose and polyester (PET) yarns with the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene) with a solventless technique chemical vapour deposition(CVD) produces polymer layers with high conductivity which has many electronic applications.

Conductive textiles
It is produced by melt spinning of thermoplastic polymers− polyethylene (PE) or polystyrene (PS) with conductive fillers such as carbon nanotubes (CNT), metal powders, carbon black, or conjugated polymers but the conductivity levels obtained is low.

Textile fibers such as polyester, nylon, and viscose have good mechanical properties, and conductive fibers based on these textile fibers should also have enough electrical and mechanical properties that enable them to be used in real applications.

Conductivity in textile fibers can be introduced either by incorporating metallic filaments in the yarns or by coating them with conductive materials.

Metal content in material for clothing makes it difficult to process and also reduces the comfort of the final product.

Conductive polymer composites
Different architectures of conductive fibers.

The fiber capacitors presented in our paper are fabricated by the fiber drawing technique which consists of three steps:

1, The first step involves rolling or stacking conductive and dielectric films into a multilayer preform structure.

2.During the second step the preform is consolidated by heating it to temperatures somewhat above the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg).

3.Finally, the third step involved drawing of the consolidated preform into fibers using fiber drawing tower.

Flexible multilayer capacitors generally consist of two conducting polymer layers serving as two electrodes of a capacitor, and two isolating polymer separator layers.

Three distinct fiber capacitor geometries are explained as follows:

 The first fiber type features cylindrical geometry with two plastic electrodes in the form of a spiralling multilayer . Central part of a fiber was either left empty with the inner plastic electrode lining up the hollow core, or a metallic electrode was introduced into the hollow core during drawing, or the core was collapsed completely thus forming a plastic central electrode. In all these fibers, the second electrode was wrapped around the fiber.

 The second fiber type is also of cylindrical multilayer geometry, however it features two hollow cores lined with two plastic electrodes. The fiber is wrapped into an isolating material so there is no direct contact with environment. During drawing two metallic electrodes were introduced into the fiber cores.

 Finally, the third fiber type features a square electrically isolating tube comprising a zigzagging stack of the plastic electrodes separated by a zigzaging dielectic layer. The metallic electrodes were integrated on the left and right sides of a tube for the ease of connectorization.

Smart materials are incorporated in textiles by different technologies like Weaving, braiding, coating,printin provides special features such as controlled hydrophobic behaviour.

Conductive Fibers

Textile structures that exhibit conductivity or serve an electronic or computational function are called electro-textiles.
They can have a variety of functions, like antistatic applications, electromagnetic interference shielding , electronic applications, infrared absorption or protective clothing in explosive areas.


Electrically conductive fibers can also be produced by coating the fibers with metals, galvanic substances or metallic salts.
Common textile coating processes include electroless plating, evaporative deposition, sputtering, coating the textile with a conductive polymer . In a method to fabricate fibers with different material layers and material structuring is presented.
The fabrication process is based on the conventional preform-based fiber-processing, easily yielding kilometers of functional fiber during the process.
 Treated Conductive Fibers

There are different ways to produce electrically conductive fabrics.
One method is to integrate conductive yarns in a textile structure, e.g. by weaving. Conductivity can be established with different thread types.
However, woven fabric structures can provide a complex network that can be used as elaborated electrical circuits with numerous electrically conducting and non-conducting constituents, and be structured to have multiple layers and spaces to accommodate electronic devices.

Conductive Fabrics
Figure 6. (a) Standard design of copper yarn twisted with polyester fibers; (b) PETEX.
All conductive inks must contain an appropriate highly conductive metal precursor such as Ag, Cu, and Au NPs and a carrier vehicle.

Most of them are water based: water is the main ink component and to limit contaminants, it must be as pure as possible.

There are several technologies that can print conductive material on different substrate.

Sheet-based inkjet and screen printing are best for low-volume, high-precision work. developed an innovative screen printed network of electrodes and associated conductive tracks on textiles for medical applications.

Conductive Inks
Textiles represent an attractive class of substrates for realizing wearable bio-sensors.

As many different electronic systems can be connected to any clothing, a wearable system becomes more versatile, and the user can change its look depending on environmental changes and individual preference.

Current advances in textile technologies, new materials, nanotechnology and miniaturized electronics are making wearable systems more feasible but the final key factor for user acceptance of wearable devices is the fit comfort.

Smart polymers hence is the future with vast potential making them interesting for various smart textile applications ranging from distributed sensing to energy storage.

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Jones, T. Martin, Z. Nakad, “Electronic Textiles: A Platform for Pervasive Computing”, Proc.
IEEE, vol.91, No.12, pp.1991–2016, Dec. 2003.
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for electronic textiles," Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 19, 115006 (2010)
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Smart Textiles, Leeds, UK, 11 June 2004.
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