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monali dahale

on 22 February 2017

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Nanotechnology in Ballistics Applications

Anti Trauma Pads

Interpretation of Problem
Fig.5 The lotus effect
Its primary purpose is to absorb and disrupt the kinetic energy of a bullet impact and reduce the blunt trauma transferred to the wearer of the vest.
Current Product used at DuPont is IC 600D and its features:-
1. Areal Density: 900 GSM
2. Denier: 1000
3. Product type: Laminated
Alternative designs for conventional Trauma Pads
Carbon Nanotubes reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite

High energy absorption characteristics combined with their low density and exceptional mechanical properties make them ideal for ballistic applications.

MWCNT's dispersed in epoxy resin provides a ultra high mechanical energy capability along with very high compressive strength and high impact resistance.

1. Resin: Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin.
2.MWCNT: Amino functionalized MWCNT's with a average outer diameter of 10nm and average length of 3 micrometre.

Carbon Nanotubes reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite
 Shear Thickening Fluids
Impact of tumbling on kevlar with shear thickening fluids needs to be studied.
Temperature stability of STF needs to be studied.
Apart from Silica+PEG combination, the other effective combinations needs to be investigated.

Further Developments
Types of weave
Construction of Fabric
Different Denier fabrics
3D Weaving
Other Modifications
Heavy material(High GSM) used.
Current GSM: 800-1000, should
be reduced to 300-500 GSM.
BFD value should be lower: which can be achieved by increasing the coefficient of friction of Kevlar fabric surface .
It should be more economical as the current price is quite high.
The product must be durable.
Comparison of different Reinforcements
Comparison of damage patters of silica and carbon based resins
Nano Silica has very high surface area which gives it good energy apsorption property when combined with epoxy resins.
It has following features:-
1. Decreases matrix shear yielding
2. Crack front pinning
3. Improve flexural strength and stiffness
The average particle size would be 14nm with a specific area 100metre square per gram.
Carbon Nanotubes reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite
Nano Silica dispersed Resin
Natural Fillers: Alkaline treated coconut shell powder
Alkaline treatment to Cocunut Shell Powder(CSP) will lead to disruption of hydrogen bonding thereby increasing the surface roughness.
CSP in epoxy resins give good mechanical properties, high impact strength and dimensional stability.

CSP at different concentrations
Alkali treated CSP and their properties
Multi Threat Protection-Shear Thickening Fluids
Application of shear thickening fluids allows the wearer flexibility for a normal range of movement, yet providing rigidity to resist piercing by bullets, stabbing knife blows, and similar attacks.

Impregnate Kevlar fabric with shear thickening fluid
• At low shear rates (normal motion)
1. STF behaves like a liquid
2. High flexibility, little or no impediment to motion
• At high shear rates (ballistic impact)
1. Relative motion of yarns / fibers within fabric deforms STF at high rate
2. STF transitions to rigid phase, enhances ballistic protection of fabric
Shear Thickening fluids
STF-impregnated Kevlar targets are thinner and more flexible than
neat Kevlar targets with comparable ballistic performance
[1]Abdelkader M., Sennett M., Withers J.C., Loutfy R.O. and Moravsky A. (2002). "The investigation of carbon nanotubes for
lightweith armor materials."US Army SBCCOM Natick Soldier Center.
[2]Anderson C. Jr., B. S. (1988). "Ballistic impact: The status of analytical and material modeling." Int J Impact Eng (7)9(9): 9-35.
[3]Avila A. F., Soares M. I. and Silva. A. (2007). "A study of nanostructured laminated plates behaviour under low velocity impact
loadings." International Journal of Impact Engineering34(34): 28-41.
[4]Avila A. F., Soares M. I.. and Silva. A.. (2005). "An experimental investigation on nanocomposites under impact loading." WIT
Transactions on Engineering Sciences (49): 90-102.
[5]Beyer Frederick L. and Madison Phil (2002). "Morphological behavior of model, polystyrene based polymer layered silicate
nonocomposites."Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Army Research Laboratory.
[6]Cheeseman B. A. and Bogetti T. A. (2003). "Ballistic impact into fabric and compliant composite laminates
" Comp. Struct. (61 ): 161–173.
[7]Findik F. and Tarim N. (2003). "Ballistic impact efficiency of polymer composites." Composite Structures61(61): 187–192.
[8]Flanagan, M. P., Zikry, M. A., Wall, J. W. and El-Shiekh, A. (1999). "An Experimental Investigation of High Velocity Impact and
Penetration Failure Modes in Textile Composites." Journal of Composite Materials (33)12(12): 1080-1103.
[9]Grujicic M., Pandurangan D. C., Angstadt K. L., Koudela B. and Cheeseman A. (2007). "Ballistic-performance optimization of a
hybrid carbon-nanotube/E-glass reinforced poly-vinyl-ester-epoxy-matrix composite armor." J Mater Sci (42): 5347–5359.
[10]Hussain F. and Hojjati M. (2006). "Review article: Polymer-matrix Nanocomposites, Processing, Manufacturing, and Application:
An Overview." Journal of COMPOSITE MATERIALS (40)17(17): 1511-1575
Why Nanotechnology in Ballistics?
The energy absobed by adding nanoparticles can be enhanced upto 15%.

The ballistic limit velocity(V50) can be increased upto 7.3%

The damage size around the point of impact decreases on addition of nanoparticles

Dispersion of CNT's
1. Amino Functionalization of CNT's
Carried out inorder to increase the wettability and hydrophilicity of CNT's with epoxy resins.
First, pristine MWCNT's should be oxidized using a HNO3 treatment inorder to eliminate metallic particles resulting from the synthesis procedure but also to generate functional groups, in particular carboxylic groups
Then amino groups are grafted using hexane diamine (HDA) and EDC as coupling agent .
Dispersion of CNT's
1. Solution Blending
2. In-Situ Polymerization
Bisphenol A and epoxy chloropropane should be added to a three-neck flask. After being dissolved, CNTs are put into flask and solution is sonicated for 60min, and the reaction temperature is slowly raised to 55°C.
At this time, 20% wt NaOH solution is slowly dropped, maintaing the temperature at 70°C. Finally, the reaction is maintained at 80°C for 2hr.
After that, distilled water and 30 ml toluene are added to flask. The mixed solution is put into 250 ml separatory funnel. Water layer is removed, and oil layer is treated by reduced pressure distillation.
Why In-situ Polymerization over Solution Blending?
To enhance CNT uniform dispersion and interfacial bonding.
In-situ grafts peroxide groups onto the surface of Nanotubes and functionalized CNT's react easily with epoxy.
It leads to formation of covalent bond between the CNT and epoxy polymer.
Knife Test
Spike Test
Shear Thickening Fluids Synthesis
3D Weaving
Due to the extra strength provided by the z-yarn in the through thickness dimension, it can better resist delamination.

3D woven fabrics have a highly porous structure, which decreases resin infusion time.

3D woven fabrics has a very high compressive strength.

3D orthogonal woven fabrics have less or no yarn crimp (the difference in length of yarn, before and after weaving); therefore, mechanical properties of fibers are almost fully utilized in warp and weft directions. Thus, it could benefit from the maximum load carrying capacity of high performance fibers in these directions.

Dispersion of Silica nanoparticles in Epoxy
Inorder to prevent the agglomeration of silica particles in epoxy, surface modification of Silica nanoparticles is carried out using Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A as a surface modifier and imidazole(catalyst).
Surface modified SiO2 and epoxy resin were ultrasonified at 40 degree celsius for 1 hour.
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