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Pauline Suncar

on 6 November 2014

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Transcript of Colombia


Before 1810
"US-Colombia." Energy & Environment. Embassy of Colombia, n.d. Web. <http://colombiaemb.org/node/>.
"Typical Colombian Food." Colombia Food, Typical Colombian Meals and Desserts. South America, n.d. Web.<http://www.southamerica.cl/Colombia/>
"Cost of Living in Colombia." . Prices in Colombia. Numbeo, n.d. Web.<http://www.numbeo.com/cost-of-living/>
"Colombian Literature." Colombian Literature. Footprint Travel Guide, n.d. Web.<http://www.footprinttravelguides.com/latin-america/colombia/culture/literature/>
"Colombia Timeline." BBC News. BBC, 14 Aug. 2012. Web.<http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/>
1525: Spain begins conquest of Colombia.
1536-38: Spain establishes the settlement of Santa Fe de Bogota, which subsequently becomes known as Bogota, the current capital; becomes part of the Spanish vice-royalty of Peru.
1718: Bogota becomes the capital of the Spanish vice-royalty of Nueva Granada, which also rules Ecuador and Venezuela.
Santa Cruz de Mompox, a port on the Magdalena River, was one of the grandest towns of the period because of its importance as a trading post for the Spanish settlers
On July 20, 1810, the citizens of Santa Fe de Bogotá created the first representative council to defy Spanish authority marking the road to complete independence
1819: Simon Bolivar defeats Spanish at Boyaca. Republic of Gran Colombia formed with Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela.
1822: The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in the present territory of Colombia
1849: Conservative and Liberal parties founded.
1810 - 1860
Gran Colombia: 1822-1830
Included Ecuador, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela
Simon Bolívar and José Antonio Páez are leaders of Colombia and Venezuela at the time although Ecuador was experiencing political turmoil, its leader was Antonio José de Sucre
Eventually Venezuela and Ecuador wish to be completely independent causing the separation of Gran Colombia
1860 - 1910
1861-85: Liberal Party rule sees country divided into nine largely autonomous entities and the church separated from the state.
1885: Start of 45 years of Conservative Party rule during which power is recentralised and church influence restored.
One civil war that resulted from the bitter rivalry between the Conservative and Liberal parties was The War of a Thousand Days (1899-1903) claimed an estimated 100,000 lives
Geography and Climate
"We keep
the rhythm

of Colombia alive
Population of Colombia is 46.93 million people
Over 87 indigenous ethnic groups that represent 1.5 % of the country’s population
Nearly 12,000 gypsies who descend from Colonial times, and several other non-traditional immigrant groups in different regions of the country.
Main language is spanish
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
In general, there are two main seasons, the wet season and the dry season
current environmental issues include: deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from
vehicle emissions
Natural resources include: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Rio Cano Castales is a special place where the river explodes with vibrant colors because, a unique species of plant that lines the river floor turns a brilliant red while surrounded by splotches of yellow and green sand, blue water, and countless shades in between.
Fun Fact
Meet the President
Juan Manuel Santos Calderón is the current president of la Répública de Colombia since August 7th, 2010 although the first president was Simon Bolivar
It is a republic where the executive branch dominates government structure
Role in
the Modern

Colombia is the Un
ited States' 3rd largest export market in Latin America be
hind Mexico and Brazil
Colombia has signed or is negotiating FTAs with a number of other countries, including Canada, Chile, Mexico, Switzerland, the EU, Venezuela, South Korea, Turkey, Japan, China, Costa Rica, Panama, and Israel
Colombia is the chair of the UN Sanctions Committee for Sudan and the UN Sanctions Committee and promoted a dialogue regarding Haiti. Colombia was accepted as a member of the group “Friends of Haiti.”
Colombia is playing an important role in building police capacities in Mexico, Honduras and Haiti, among others; setting up aerial interdiction capabilities in Panama and the Dominican Republic; establishing maritime interdiction structures in 13 countries throughout the region; and establishing a unified front in the fight against drug trafficking with 12 West African countries
On the not so bright side...
World's leading coca cultivator with 116,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2009, about 62% of which is pure cocaine
supplies cocaine and heroin to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets
a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange
Catholicism is the main religion in Colombia with about 90% of the population identifying itself as Roman Catholic
10% identify as other including Protestant, Atheist, Jewish, Muslim, and Jehovah's witnesses
In every region, the diversity of the Colombian people is expressed and celebrated during fairs and cultural festivals:
The Carnival of Blacks and Whites in Pasto
The Barranquilla Carnival
The Vallenato Legend Festival in Valledupar
The Colombian Folkloric Festival in Ibague and the Bambuco National Pageant in Neiva in June
The Medellín Flower Fair in August

El Carmen Church
Money and Economy
1 US dollar is equivalent to approximately 1800 Colombian pesos
Colombia has the third largest GDP in South America and a free market economy
At 3.7% its inflation rate is one of the lowest in the region and its lowest in 50 years
As of 2011 about 34% of citizens lived below the poverty line, a number that has steadily declined over the past decade
The unemployment rate as of 2012 is 10.3%
The household income by percentage share is 0.9% for the lowest 10% and 44.4% for the highest 10%
1 kg of rice would cost about 2,645.55 pesos, a liter of milk about 2,200 pesos, a dozen eggs about 3,810 pesos, and a loaf of white bread about 2,500 pesos
Its exports have more than tripled since 2000 and exceeded $56 billion in 2011; the Us is its most important export destination
# 37 on the 2013 Index of Economic Freedom
Some exports are bananas, rice, coffee, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, and cocoa beans
Main industries are oil, mining (gold, emeralds, coal), textiles, and clothing and footwear, among others
Colombia currency depicts several soldiers, politicians, and writers
In the Heart of Colombia
The 4 major musical areas are the mountain heartland, the Pacific coast, the Caribbean coast, and the Llanos (eastern plains)
Mountain heartland: Consists of relatively gentle music and mostly uses string instruments
Pacific coast: African-style energetic dance and vocal with strong percussion
Caribbean coast: Most diverse region; famous for its Musica Tropical
Llanos: The dances are fast-paced and usually for couples including the main dance, the Joropo
Bambuco-National dance
Tiple- National Instrument
1910 - 1950
1950 - 1970
1970 - 1995
1995 - 2005
2005 - now

Colombian food is very diverse and it differs by region
Some regions eat such delicacies as guinea pigs and ants, but most places don't even go near those types of dishes
Colombian food consists heavily of meat, and coastal areas offer a wide array of seafoods
There are also many fresh and exotic fruits that you didn't even know existed!
1930: Liberal President Olaya Herrera elected; social legislation introduced and trade unions encouraged.
1939: played an important role in World War II because of its strategic location near the Panama Canal, and its access to both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
December 1941: Colombia ceased diplomatic relations with the Axis powers, and entered the war on the Allies' side after a series of German U-boat attacks on Colombian ships.
1946: Conservatives return to power.
1946-1957: La Violenca was another civil war between Liberals and Conservatives that cost another 300,000 Colombians
1948: Assassination of left-wing mayor of Bogota ignites riots.
Art and Literature
Colombian art dates back 3000 years with evidence of ceramics from around 3000 BCE
Takes influence from indigenous art forms and Spanish colonialism
Colonial literature focused on Catholicism and observations of the New World
After independence much of the writing focused on costumbrismo (depiction of local life and customs)
Magic Realism: Cien años de soledad by Gabriel García Márquez
Famous Colombians
Fernando Botero's works
News Article
Sofia Vergara
Film and Television Actor
Fernando Botero
Gabriel Garcia Marquez
July 1957: In order to end La Violencia former Conservative President Laureano Gomez and former Liberal President Alberto Lleras Camargo proclaimed the "Declaration of Sitges," in which they proposed a "National Front"; ban other parties
1965: Leftist National Liberation Army and Maoist People's Liberation Army (EPL) founded
1966: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Farc, the current largest guerrilla grouping) set up.
1970: National People's Alliance formed as a left-wing counterweight to the National Front.
Fun Fact:
A young Cataleya lives with her parents in Bogotá, Colombia. Her father has key information about drug lord Don Luis Sandoval. When Don Luis learns about this, he sends his henchman Marcoto kill Fabio. Fabio gives Cataleya the information Don Luis wants, and tells her that's her passport and gives her the address of her Uncle Emilio's home in Chicago. She safely makes it to the U.S. Embassy and is sent to her uncle Emilio (Cliff Curtis), a criminal in Chicago. Once they meet, Cataleya asks him to train her as an assassin.
Fun Fact
Colombia’s international prestige includes being the largest emerald producer, since it has some of the rarest, with 60% of the world’s total coming from Colombia
Capital of Colombia is Bogotá which was previously known as Santa Fe de Bogotá in colonial times
1791- Left-wing M19 guerilla group emerges
1978-President Julio Turbay (Liberal) begins intensive fight against drug traffickers.
1984- Conservative President Belisario Betancur negotiated a cease-fire that included the release of many guerrillas imprisoned during the effort to overpower the insurgents
1985- Attack on Palace of Justice by M19
1986- Farc renewed truce with the government which ended in 1990
1991- New Constitution written by a national assembly that included small guerilla groups
1993- Pablo Escobar, Medellin drug-cartel leader, shot dead while trying to evade arrest
1995-Ernesto Samper Pizano (Liberal) elected president
1998-Conservative President Andres Pastrana Arango begins peace talks with guerrillas; gives them a territory the size of Switzerland
1999-Pastrana and Farc leader Manuel "Sureshot" Marulanda meet; earthquake kills 1000 people
1999-Pastrana administration unveiled its "Plan Colombia"; wins almost $1 billion US dollars in military aid
2002- After talking and negotiating on and off, Pastrana accepts Farc ceasefire timetable and extends safe haven until April
2003- Alvaro Uribe sworn in; attack on Bogota same day; declares state of emergency
2004-Right-wing AUC and government begin peace talks
2005-Peace talks with National Liberation Army (second biggest left-wing rebel group) in Cuba
2006- Free trade deal with the US; Uribe's 2nd term
2007- Governement releases Farc guerillas in exchange for hostages; fails
2007- Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez acts mediator for the release of hostages
2009- Allows Us to use its military bases; brink of war with Venezuela; diplomatic ties restored
2009- Marxist rebels decice to focus on the army
2011- Farc offers a "peace gesture"; government gives land to those displaced by civil conflict
2012- Congress approves a law setting up guidelines for peace talks with left-wing rebels
Colombia is also the world’s second-largest exporter of flowers after the Netherlands. Up to 28 cargo planes a day carry flowers from Colombia to the U.S.
Hear that?
The word vallenato originated in the valley between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía de Perijá mountain ranges. Vallenato was originally a means of spreading news between towns with the accompaniment of the accordion. Combining the sounds of an accordion, a small drum called the caja vallenata and a wooden ribbed stick and fork known as the guacharaca, vallenato is one of Colombia’s most popular traditional forms of folk music.
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