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Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function Chun

Part 1
by

James Chun

on 4 February 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function Chun

Cell Structure and Function
Chapter 3 (Part 1)
Too small to be seen with the naked eye.
Many times smaller than a grain of sand.

Looking at Cells Under the Microscope
List the parts of a cell
Explain how plant cells differ from animal cells.
Describe the structure of organisms.
Explain the process by which cells reproduce.
Learning Objectives
1. Magnification - The quality of making an image appear larger than its actual size.
2. Resolution - Measure of the clarity of an image.

Micrograph - The image produced by a microscope.
Characteristics of a Microscope
A good microscope offers high magnification and good resolution.
Two Kinds of Microscope
Ocular - The lens closest to the eye.
Objective - The lens closest to the specimen.
Parts of a Microscope
Dutch scientist.
Used a microscope to view water from a pond, and discovered many living creatures.
"animacules" - little animals
Robert Hooke
English scientist, made a crude microscope to observe a thin slice of cork in 1665.
Saw "a lot of little boxes" - cells!
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
German Botanist
In 1838, concluded that cells make up not only the stems and roots but every part of a plant. (All plants have cells)
Mattias Schleiden
Claimed that animals are made of cells.
Theodor Schwann
In 1858, Rudolph Virchow determined that cells come only from other cells.
Ruolph Virchow
The Cell Theory

By the 1800s, microscopes had been invented that were more powerful than the one that Robert Hooke used. These microscopes allowed other scientists to study cells in greater detail.

Scientists discovered many things about cells. They were able to see some structures inside cells. They were also able to see some of the activities going on inside cells. These discoveries about cells led to the cell theory.

The Main points of the cell theory are:




Although the cell theory was developed in the 1800s, biologists today agree with the main points of the theory. Modern microscopes are even more powerful than they were in the 1800s. Today, the information that biologists discover about cells still supports the cell theory.

CRITICAL THINKING:
Why do you think powerful microscopes were important in the development of the cell theory?
Great Moments in Biology
The Cell Theory

Two new cells form when a living cell splits. New cells come only from other living cells.
All cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA.
Common Features of Cells
The outer boundary of the cell.
Holds the cell together and protects it.
Encloses the cell and controls what enters and leaves a cell - including gases, nutrients, and waste.
Cell Membrane
Cells have a system of internal membranes that play an essential role in the processing of proteins.
Cells make proteins on ribosomes.
cells need proteins to grow and to carry out other life functions.
Ribosomes and Endoplasmic Reticulum
The jellylike material inside the cell - including the fluid, cytoskeleton, and all the organelles except the nucleus.
Organelle
- A part in a cell that floats in the cytoplasm and helps the cell to carry out life functions.
Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum
- extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell.
Production of Proteins
A set of flattened, membrane bound sacs that serves as the packaging and distribution center of the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
Structures in Plant Cells
Chloroplast
Cell Wall
Central Vacuole
Plants have fewer vacuoles than animal cells.
Stores water and may contain many substances, including ions, nutrients and waste.
Larger vacuoles needed to hold water.
Organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water.
Animals cannot make their own food.
Supports and maintains the shape of the cell.
Protects the cell from damage.
Connects it with the adjacent cells.
Plant cells have three additional structures that are not found in animal cells.
Light passes through lenses to magnify an image.
Can be used to view living cells.
Simple light microscope -
Uses one lens and natural light. (Leeuwenhoek)
Compound light microscope -
Uses multiple lenses
Light Microscope
Invented in the 1940's.
Uses a beam of electrons to magnify specimens: cannot be used to view living cells.
Can magnify up to 200,000x
Study structures inside cells or on the surface of cells.
Two types of electron microscopes -
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) - Scans the surface of cells.
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) - Allows for the study of structures inside the cell.
Electron Microscope
SEM
TEM
Plant Stem Cell
The Wacky History of Cell Theory
In nearly all eukaryotic cells.
Is known as the "powerhouses" of cells.
An organelle that harvest energy from organic compounds to make ATP, the main energy currency of cells.
Mitochondria
The storerooms of cells.
Food and water are stored in the vacuoles.
Waste material can also be stored here.
Vacuoles
Controls most functions of a eukaryotic cell.
Stores the cell's DNA - the hereditary information of a eukaryotic cell.
Nucleus
All living things are made of one or more cells.
Cells carry out all life functions. (Basic unit of organization in organisms)
New cells come only from other living cells.
Small, spherical organelles that contain the cell’s digestive enzymes
Lysosomes
All cells have DNA, which provides instructions for making proteins, regulates cellular activities.
DNA
Short hair-like structure protruding from the surface of the cells.
Propels the cell through their environment or move substances across the cell’s surface.
Cilia
Long, threadlike structures that protrude from the cell’s surface and enable movement.
Many single-celled eukaryotes use flagella for movement.
Flagella
Intro to Cells
Full transcript