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Outdoor Education and Theretical Models of Reflection and Teamworking
Transcript of Outdoor Education and Theretical Models of Reflection and Teamworking
The advantage of teamwork is that people working together can often achieve something beyond the capabilities of individuals working alone.
Success is not only a function of team members' talents and the available resources but also of the processes team members use to interact with each other (Marks et al., 2001)
Group work, group development and team dynamics
Katzenbach and Smith (1993, p.92) defined a team as “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.”
“The speed and efficiency with which effective teams can be brought together to resolve problems is crucial to success in the modern organization” (Economist, 2006, p. 15).
Hadyn et al. (1997, p. 118) state that, "despite increasing interest in teamwork, much of the literature on the subject is inconclusive and often derived from anecdote rather than primary research.”
“Group development research involves the study of group activities and how those activities change over the life of the group” (Miller 2003, p. 122).
The most widely known and accepted team development model is the four-stage Tuckman (1965) (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing) model (Buchanan and Huczynski, 1997).
TUCKMAN and JENSEN (1977)
The Tuckman (1965) model is one of the most popular models found in the literature
Two popular alternatives are:
Time, Interaction, and Performance Theory (TIP) (McGrath,1990, 1991)
Punctuated equilibrium model (Gersick, 1988, 1989)
Inception and acceptance of a project (goal choice)
Solution of technical issues
Resolution of conflict
Execution of the performance requirements (goal attainment).
“Groups’ progress is triggered more by members’ awareness of time and deadlines than by completion of an absolute amount of work”
Stage 1-first half of the team’s task duration
Stage 2 -happens around the midpoint of the task duration involving a new pattern of behaviour that then carries the team through task completion.
“The total field of forces which act on members to remain in a group.”
(Festinger, Schacter and Back, 1950, p.164.)
“A dynamic process which is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of goals and objectives.”
( Carron, 1982, p.124.)
“ Harmony grows when you really listen to others and they listen to you, when you are considerate of their feelings and they are considerate of yours, when you accept their differences and they accept yours and when you help them and they help you.”
Orlick (1990, p. 143)
BUILDING TEAM COHESION
THE PHENOMENON BY WHICH INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE DECREASES AS THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN THE GROUP INCREASES
THE MORE PEOPLE INVOLVED IN A ROPE PULLING TASK- THE LESS EFFORT MADE, SAME FOR SINGING AND CLAPPING - RELATED TO MOTIVATION
FOR A TEAM TO BECOME EFFECTIVE TWO IMPORTANT STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS MUST DEVELOP
1 GROUP ROLES
2 GROUP NORMS
Belbin (1981, p. 60) defined a Team Role as: "A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way.“
Team Roles improve self-knowledge and understanding among individuals and teams.
Team Roles depict a current behavioural pattern - a snapshot of your behaviour at one time.
Preferences aren't fixed, since many factors can influence behaviour, whether a new job, promotion or circumstances outside work.
DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM
Belbin (1981) identified nine team roles
He categorized those roles into three groups:
Each team role is associated with typical behavioural and interpersonal strengths. Belbin (1981) also defined characteristic weaknesses that tend to accompany the team-role. He called the characteristic weaknesses of team-roles the "allowable" weaknesses; as for any behavioural weakness, these are areas to be aware of and potentially improve.
Understanding Belbin's Team Roles Model
Shapers are people who challenge the team to improve. They are dynamic and usually extroverted people who enjoy stimulating others, questioning norms, and finding the best approaches to problems. The Shaper is the one who shakes things up to make sure that all possibilities are considered and that the team does not become complacent. Shapers often see obstacles as exciting challenges and they tend to have the courage to push on when others feel like quitting. Their potential weaknesses may be that they're argumentative, and that they may offend people's feelings
Implementers are the people who get things done. They turn the team's ideas and concepts into practical actions and plans. They are typically conservative, disciplined people who work systematically and efficiently and are very well organized. These are the people who you can count on to get the job done. On the downside, Implementers may be inflexible and somewhat resistant to change.
Are the people who see that projects are completed thoroughly. They ensure there have been no errors or omissions and they pay attention to the smallest of details. They are very concerned with deadlines and will push the team to make sure the job is completed on time. They are described as perfectionists who are orderly, conscientious, and anxious. However, a Completer-Finisher may worry unnecessarily and find it hard to delegate.
Are the ones who take on the traditional team-leader role and have also been referred to as the chairperson. They guide the team to what they perceive are the objectives. They are often excellent listeners and they are naturally able to recognize the value that each team members brings to the table. They are calm and good-natured and delegate tasks very effectively. Their potential weaknesses are that they may delegate away too much personal responsibility, and may tend to be manipulative.
Are the people who provide support and make sure the team is working together. These people fill the role of negotiators within the team and they are flexible, diplomatic, and perceptive. These tend to be popular people who are very capable in their own right but who prioritize team cohesion and helping people getting along. Their weaknesses may be a tendency to be indecisive, and maintain uncommitted positions during discussions and decision-making.
Are innovative and curious. They explore available options, develop contacts, and negotiate for resources on behalf of the team. They are enthusiastic team members, who identify and work with external stakeholders to help the team accomplish its objective. They are outgoing and are often extroverted, meaning that others are often receptive to them and their ideas. On the downside, they may lose enthusiasm quickly, and are often overly optimistic.
Is the creative innovator who comes up with new ideas and approaches. They thrive on praise but criticism is especially hard for them to deal with. Plants are often introverted and prefer to work apart from the team. Because their ideas are so novel, they can be impractical at times. They may also be poor communicators and can tend to ignore given parameters and constraints.
Are best at analyzing and evaluating ideas that other people (often Plants) come up with. These people are shrewd and objective and they carefully weigh the pros and cons of all the options before coming to a decision. Monitor-Evaluators are critical thinkers and very strategic in their approach. They are often perceived as detached or unemotional. Sometimes they are poor motivators who react to events rather than instigating them
Are people who have specialized knowledge that is needed to get the job done. They pride themselves on their skills and abilities, and they work to maintain their professional status. Their job within the team is to be an expert in the area, and they commit themselves fully to their field of expertise. This may limit their contribution, and lead to a preoccupation with technicalities at the expense of the bigger picture.
Luft, Joseph (1969). "Of Human Interaction," Palo Alto, CA:National Press (and Harry Ingram)
Model describing the process of human interaction.
Based on the disclosure / Feedback Model of awareness
Divides personal awareness into four different types, represented by its four quadrants:
open, hidden, blind, and unknown.
A model for self-awareness,
personal development, group
development and understanding
Johari Window Model
Represents things that both I know about myself, and that you know about me
Is part of our conscious self
Includes our attitudes, behaviours, values, ways of life of which we are aware and which is known to others
We move in this area with freedom
We are open books
The 'Open' Quadrant (Arena)
Represents things that you know about me, but that I am unaware of
Things about ourselves that we do not know but others can see these things clearly
Things we imagine about ourselves to be true but that others do not see at all
When others say what they see in a supportive and responsible way and we are able to hear it we are able to grow
The 'Blind' Quadrant
Represents things that I know about myself, that you do not know
Hidden area cannot be known to others unless we disclose it
That which we retain out of fear
The degree to which we share (disclose) is the degree to which we can be known
The 'Hidden' Quadrant (Facade)
Represents things that neither I know about myself, nor you know about me
We are more rich and complex than that which we and others know
From time to time something happens, something from our unconscious is revealed
We have talents (or evil streaks) we only become aware of if the situation arises
The 'Unknown' Quadrant
Outdoor adventure and working in teams involves the process of sharing
Through disclosure and feedback our open pane is expanded
We gain access to the potential within us -represented by the ‘unknown pane’
Openness, reviewing and feedback situations in outdoor and adventurous activities provides opportunities to reduce our ‘blind’ and ‘hidden’ areas and increase the ‘open pane’ by receiving feedback and engaging in self disclosure
As a consequence we increase our knowledge of blind spots and hidden potential
Expanded the original model (Tuckman, 1965) to include the stage of team dissolution.
You must record the activities undertaken on the residential experience and reflect upon their value to you as a learning experience. This is part of your summative assessment. Completion of this diary will also serve as an essential tool and aide memoir for your written assignment
Personal Learning Diary
Is to enable you to record your own reflections on how the residential at the Raymond Priestley Centre has assisted you to develop as a person and as a member of a team.
You may have had the opportunity to learn new physical skills, to push yourself out of your comfort zone, to be more self reflective about you own behaviour when working with others in both formal and informal contexts.
The intention is that you use the Johari Window Model as a basis for your own reflections upon the value of the activities during the outdoor residential trip and your personal learning....
Use Belbin/Tuckman, etc. to reflect on processes relating to teams
And this forms an essential part of your assessment.
Personal Learning Diary
A team which understands itself – i.e., each member having a strong mutual understanding with the team - is far more effective than a team which does not understand each other – i.e., whose members have large hidden, blind, and/or unknown areas
Members - and leaders - should strive to increase their open
free areas, and to reduce their blind, hidden and unknown
areas. Seeking feedback about the blind area will reduce the blindarea, and will increase the open free area
Discovery through sensitive communications, active listening
and experience, will reduce the unknown area, transferring in part to the blind, hidden areas, depending on who knows
what, or better still if known by the person and others, to the
open free area