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Chapter 5: Tissues

Notes Outline

Diane Tucker

on 7 November 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 5: Tissues

(3) simple columnar epithelium
- function: absorption, secretion, protection
- location: linings of uterus, stomach, and intestin

(4) pseudostratified columnar epithelium
- function: protection, secretion, movement of mucus
- location: linings of respiratory passages

(5) stratified squamous epithelium
- function: protection
- location: outer layer of skin, linings of oral cavity, throat, vagina, and
anal canal

(6) stratified cuboidal epthelium
- function: protection
- location: linings of larger ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands,
salivary glands, and pancreas

(7) stratified columnar epithelium
- function: protection, secretion
- location: vas deferens, part of the male urethra, parts of the pharynx The general characteristics of epithelial tissues are...
(1) covers all free body surfaces and is the major tissue of glands
(2) anchored to connective tissue by a basement membrane, lacks
blood vessels, contains little extracellular matrix, and is
replaced continuously
(3) provides protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion
(4) classified according to cell shape and number of layers of cells.

Types of epithelial tissues...
(1) simple squamous epithelium
- function: filtration, diffusion, osmosis, covers surface

- location: air sacs of the lungs, walls of capillaries, linings of
blood and lymph vessels

(2) simple cuboidal epithelium
- function: secretion, absorption

- location: surface of ovaries, linings of kidney tubules, and linings
of ducts of certain glands (8) transitional epithelium
- function: distensibility, protection
- location: inner lining of urinary bladder and linings of
ureters and part of urethra

(9) glandular epithelium
- function: secretion
- salivary glands, sweat glands, endocrine glands

Exocrine gland...glands that secrete their products into ducts that open onto surfaces, such as the skin or the lining of the digestive tract

Endocrine gland...glands that secrete their prodcts into tissue fluid or blood

Exocrine glands are classified by...the ways these glands secrete their products (1) Merocine glands
- description - a fluid product released throught he cell membrane
by exocytosis
- example - salivary glands, pancreatic glands, sweat glands of the
(2) apocrine glands
- description - cellular product and portions of the free ends of
glandular cells pinched off during secretion
- example - mammary glands, ceruminous glands lining the
external ear canal
(3) holocrine glands
- description - entire cells filled with secretory products
- example - sebaceous glands of the skin

Serous cell...secretes a watery fluid that has a high concentration of enzymes

Mucous cell...secretes a thicker fluid; often called goblet cells The general characteristics of connective tissue are...
(1) bind structures
(2) provide support and protection
(3) serve as frameworks
(4) fill spaces
(5) store fat
(6) produce blood cells
(7)protect against infections
(8) help repair tissue damage Notes Outline Chapter 5 - Tissues Tissue...organized groups of cells that are specialized to carry on a particular function.

The 4 major types of tissues are...
(1) Epithelial
(2) Connective
(3) Muscle
(4) Nervous

The 2 general parts of a tissue are...
(1) cells
(2) extracellular matrix Components of connective tissue
Cell type...
(1) fibroblasts - produce fibers; most common type of fixed cell in connective tissue

(2) macrophages - also called histocytes, originate as white blood cells; carry out phagocytosis

(3) mast cells - large and widely distributed in connective tissue; located near blood vessels Tissue fibers...
(1) collagenous - thick threads of the protein collagen; provide great tensile strength

(2) elastic - composed of a protein called elastin; stretch easily

(3) reticular - very thin collagenous fibers; lend delicate support

Adipose tissue...also known as fat; a specialized form of loose connective tissue that develops when certain cells (adipocytes) store fat in droplets within their cytoplasm and enlarge.

dense connective tissue... consists of many closely packed, thick, collagenous fibers and a fine network of elastic fibers Cartilage...a rigid connective tissue; provides support, frameworks, and attachments; protects underlying tissues; and forms structural models for many developing bones

(1) chondrocytes - cartilage cells; occupy small chambers called lacunae and lie completely within the extracellular matrix

(2) hyaline cartilage - the most common type, has very fine collagenous fibers in its extracellular matrix and looks somewhat like white glass

(3) elastic cartilage - contains a dense network of elastic fibers and more flexible than hyaline cartilage; provides the framework for the external ears and for parts of the larynx. (4) fibrocartilage - a very tough tissue, contains many collagenous fibers; acts as a shock absorber for structures that are subjected to pressure

Bone...the most rigid connective tissue

- osteocytes...bone cells; located in lacunae

- osteon... a cylinder-shaped unit also known as Haversian system; several cemented together form the substance of bone Injured bone heals more rapidly than injured cartilage because...bone is an active tissue

The major components of blood are...
(1) formed elements

(2) blood plasma

(3)red blood cells (RBC)

(4) white blood cells (WBC) The general characteristics of muscle tissue are...

(1) the ability to contract in response to specific stimuli.

Types of muscle tissue...
(1) skeletal muscle (striated)
- function... voluntary movements of skeletal parts
- location...muscles usually attached to bone (2) smooth muscle...
- function...involuntary movements of internal organs
- location...walls of hollow internal organs
(3) cardiac muscle...
- function...heart movements
- location...heart muscle

The general characteristics of nervous tissue are...
(1) sense changes (2) transmit nerve impulses along cytoplasmic extensions to other neurons or to muscles and glands
(3) coordinate, regulate, and integrate body activities
(4) contain neuroglial cells

Neurons...basic cells or nerve cells

neuroglial cells...provide support and bind the components of nervous tissue, carry on phagocytosis, and help supply nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels. The four types of membranes are...
(1) serous - line body cavities that lack openings to the outside

(2) mucous - line cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body.

(3) cutaneous - more commonly called the skin

(4) synovial - lines joints and is composed entirely of connective tissue
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