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Information and knowledge visualization for business applications

University of St. Gallen, Master course 8,032
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Sabrina Bresciani

on 24 April 2016

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Transcript of Information and knowledge visualization for business applications

Information and knowledge visualization
for business applications

Theoretical and technical bases
Information Visualization
Contexts
Knowledge Visualization
Internal
External
Course material available at: http://sabrinabresciani.com/lectures/ikv/
Password: IKV16

Prof. Dr. Sabrina Bresciani
University of St. Gallen
=mcm Institute
bresciani.sabrina@gmail.com

Master course: 8,032
Logistics
Class meets on Wednesday 14:15-16:00 Room 07-001
Schedule
Literature
Grading
Eppler, M. & Bresciani, S. (2015). Working Visually (extracts), =mcm Institute, University of St.
Gallen: Switzerland.
Few, S. (2006). Information dashboard design (Chapter 1). O'Reilly

Case study:
Kernbach, S. & Eppler, M. (2014). Brand Strategizing with a Twist. Visual Practices in Professional
Services Firms: The Case of Interbrand. The case centre.
50% Individual examination paper: Visual Resume
Deadline: May 4th before midnight, by email

50% Group presentation - no PPT allowed
Group work date and topic should be sent by email before March 9th
with group members names. First-come first-served
CARMEN
C
oordination: it facilitates interaction.
A
ttention: it is noticed.
R
ecall: it is remembered.
M
otivation: it mobilizes the viewers.
E
laboration: it fosters understanding.
N
ew insights: it enables new discoveries.
Required reading: Stephen Few (2006). Information Dashboard Design: The Effective Visual Communication of Data. O'Reilly Media
www.perceptualedge.com
Useful guide: http://www.perceptualedge.com/articles/Whitepapers/Common_Pitfalls.pdf
Dashboards
Source: Visualizing information for advocacy. An introduction to information design, John Emerson, Principal at Apperceptive LLC.
[Optional readings]
Why? Dual coding theory & Picture superiority effect
“Visualization provides multiple retrieval paths for accessing knowledge”
Recall
Source: Tufte, E. R., The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Connecticut,
Graphic Press, 1986.
(a-ha effect)
Why? Visuospatial reasoning (Tversky 2004)
i.e. pattern recognition, search, overview-zoom
What? Reasoning, evaluating, problem solving
Why? Lower computational effort compared
to sentential representations
Source: Larkin and Simon 87: Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words
*Salience = how a representation facilitates focusing
and processing certain information, at the expense of others

Tversky (2004) and Larkin and Simon (1987)

When visualization is used, cognitive abilities for reasoning, evaluating and solving problems are enhanced

Visuospatial advantages (mapping):
Structure
Organizes information
Reduce cognitive load
Enhance representation of relationships among complex constructs (O’Donnel et al. 2002)
Salience (Green; Suthers, 2001)
Insight
Elaboration
Motivation
Coordination
Attention
1. Sketches
Source: http://www.zukunftskongress.uni-freiburg.de/ergebnisdokumentation
Supports client communication
Creates involvement and invites participation
Creates personal touch and simplicity
Case: UBS Hand drawing library
2. Diagrams
Fishbone/Ishikawa diagram
3. Visual Metaphors
4. Knowledge Maps
5. Interactive vis.
Virtual Worlds
Training
Schmeil, A., Eppler, M.J. (2008). Collaboration Patterns for Knowledge Sharing and Integration in Second Life: A Classification of Virtual 3D Group Interaction Scripts. Conference Proceedings I-KNOW 08, Graz, Austria
Voting/ Decision making
Lego Serious Play for strategy development and corporate identity workshops
Source: www.knowledge-communication.org www.lego.com
Eppler, M.J. & Burkhard, R., Visual Representations in Knowledge Management: framework and cases, Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(11), 112-122, 2007.
http://www.visual-literacy.org/periodic_table/periodic_table.html
Eppler, M.J. & Mengis, J., Management Atlas, Management-Methoden für den Arbeitsalltag, Hanser, 2011. ISBN-10: 3-446-42701-5
Argument map
Concept map
Mindmap
Roam, Dan. 2008. The Back of the Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures. Portfolio / Penguin Group (USA) Inc.
Source: http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ever_seen.html
http://www.gapminder.org/
Source: Ben Shneiderman, The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations. In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, pages 336-343, Washington. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996.
Primary tasks that an information visualization system
should support:

The information seeking mantra (Shneiderman, 1996):

"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"
"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"
"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"
"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"
"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"
"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"
"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"
"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"
"Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on demand"



Practice!

Use Gapminder to develop an (insightful) information visualization

Be prepared to present it to the class
Advantages
Disadvantages
Layout
Why discussing disadvantages?

To understand the most common and dangerous problems
To learn to recognize them (evaluation)
To avoid them in our work (creation)

not to diminish the value of visualization!
Sources: Tufte E., Envisioning Information, Graphic Press, Connecticut, 1990
Please draw a house
Overdeterminism
Sources: Pro4s, Cambridge, UK
Shimoijma A., On the efficacy of Representations, Indiana University, PhD Thesis, 1996
Japanese train time table
Sources: Tufte E., Envisioning Information, Graphic Press, Connecticut, 1990
Confusion/Overload
Manipulation/Oversimplification
Manipulation/Ambiguity
Overload
Wainer H., How to display data badly, The American Statistician, Vol. 38, n. 2, 1984.
Manipulation
llama
Color
Tools
Bitmap and vectorial images
Note: You can convert vectorial images into pixels but not vice-versa
Why?
Help the New York Times to present the information with a visualization which is: informative and not misleading
Improving visualizations: NYT case
Let's practice
Fonts
Font: Frutiger
Alignment
Non professional
Professional
Aligned: center
Aligned: left (or right)
Structuring
Rule of thirds
Slide:ology by Nancy Duarte (2008)
Structuring
Whitespace


Average: 1 slide every 2 minutes

Guy Kawasaki: 10/20/30 rule for entrepreneurs pitch: ‘ten slides, last no more than twenty minutes, and contain no font smaller than thirty points’

Depends on the style - fast paced presentations are intriguing


Seth Godin: ‘No more than six words on a slide. EVER.’

Presentation Zen: min. font 30pt

Slideology: depends on the medium
and distance of audience -> test!
Improving visualizations: NASA case
The evening before the launch,
the rocket engineers and managers considered the question:


“Will the rubber O-rings fail catastrophically tomorrow
because of the cold weather?”
INSIGHT!
Tufte, E. R. (1997): Visual Explanations. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphic Press.
Challenger (NASA) 1986
Does it seem easy? Obvious?

7 people died
Example: Brain mass case
Tufte, E. R. (2007): Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphic Press.
INSIGHT!
Domain: (knowledge) management and education

Similar concepts: conceptual visualization, qualitative graphic representation, infographic
Domain: computer science
“the use of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of abstract data to amplify cognition” (Card et al. 1999)
Source: Eppler, M.J. & Burkhard, R., Knowledge Visualization, Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, Idea Group Inc., 2006.
Source: Stefan Bertschi, Sabrina Bresciani, et al., "What is Knowledge Visualization? Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline," iv, pp.329-336, 2011 15th International Conference on Information Visualisation, 2011
“designates all graphic means that can be used to represent and convey complex insights, experiences, or capabilities” (Eppler & Burkhard, 2006)

“Knowledge Visualization is expressing concepts through meaningful graphical mapping. “ (Bertschi, Bresciani et al., 2011).
Knowledge Visualization:
http://www.infovis-wiki.net/index.php/Information_Visualization
Information Visualization:
What’s the difference?
Numbers
Concepts / ideas
When to use which chart type?
Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8381597.stm
In this age of information overload, a new solution is emerging that could help us cope with the oceans of data surrounding and swamping us.
It's called information visualisation.
Source: smartmoney
Treemaps
Rectangular, space-filling approach for visualizing hierarchical data (multilevel / nested)
 Overview-zoom
The tree nodes are encapsulated into the area of their parent node. The size of the single nodes is determined proportionally in relation to all other nodes of the hierarchy by an attribute of the node (Johnson and Shneiderman, 1991)
 To compare
Tegarden, P., Business Information Visualization, Communications of AIS, Vol. 1 (4), 1999.
Parallel Coordinates
For visualizing highly multivariate datasets
www.macrofocus.com/infoscope/

Source: compiled from www.corda.com
Nancy Duarte
Duarte, N., Slide:ology, Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2008: XVIII
“Presentations have become the de facto business communication tool.
Companies are started, products are launched, climate systems are saved –
Possibly based on the quality of presentations”
An Inconvenient truth, 2006: Documentary film
Steve Jobs, quoting Leonardo Da Vinci
“Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”
Al Gore presentation:
created by Duarte Design
with Apple’s Keynote
+ Illustrator, Photoshop, AfterEffects
(for more complex animations) and videos

Why Apple’s Keynote?



http://presentationzen.blogs.com/presentationzen/2006/06/duarte_design_h.html
Gallo, C., The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs, McGraw Hill: New York [etc.], 2010
The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs (Gallo, 2010)
Reading patterns
1. Gutenberg diagram
2. Z-pattern
3. F-pattern
Perception
Premise: Seeing as an assumption-based
(Re-) Construction Process
Stereogram
look right through the picture – as though it's not there – so that your focus seems to be a far-off object, hence the parallel lines of sight
Closure
Figure and Ground
Connectedness
Gestalt: form or configuration

Idea: forms or patterns transcend the stimuli used to create them.
Why do patterns emerge?
Under what circumstances?
Theory: Gestalt
All Forms of Visualization need to respect the Gestalt Laws
Source: Koffka, K., 1935, The Principles of Gestalt Psychology, Harcourt Brace, New York
Color space
Source: Toschi, L. (Ed.), Il linguaggio dei nuovi media, Apogeo: Milano, 2001
Note: the same color appears differently in RGB than in CMYK!
Why?
Purpose:
Attention
Distinguish
Increases the number of dimensions
Increase the appeal
Guidelines:
Proceed with caution and focus:
Less is more
Representing magnitude is tricky


Examples:
 Select a set of dominating colors
Red
-orange
-yellow
-white
works for costs
Green
-light green
- light brown
-dark brown
-grey
-white works for atlases
Grayscale
is unambiguous but has limited range
Test for vision acuity:
http://www.xrite.com/custom_page.aspx?pageid=77&lang=en
Source: Duarte, N., Slide:ology, Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2008
Color deficiencies
Test: print in black&white
Dual Coding Theory
Picture Superiority Effect
(principle used also by NLP)
(Snodgrass Stewart & Stewart, 2001)

“the use of images in cognitive tasks leads to systematically higher recall than the mere use of words, thanks to the additional encoding enabled by pictures and their distinctiveness”
Information is processed through one or two channels:
-the verbal/textual and
-the non-verbal or imagery (visual and spatial)

=> Using both channels together increases recall, engagement and attention (Paivio 1969)
Bresciani S., Eppler M., (2010). Choosing Knowledge Visualizations to Augment Cognition: the Managers’ View. IEEE
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference Information Visualization IV10, 26-29 July 2010, London, U.K. Best paper award
Ranking of comparative usefullness of visualization (size = familiarity).
Presenting
Meetings
Strategizing
facilitation and organizational learning
Case study: branding strategy at Interbrand
Guest lecture by Sebastian Kernbach
“How can we know what we think before we see what we say?”
Karl Weick based on F. Scott Fitzgerald
Rules of the game
I am not your babysitter
Got questions? E-mail me (expect an answer within 2 business days)
Weekends are not business days
Respect
Friendly and safe environment
If you don't come to class it's your duty
to catch up with the program
exceptions: hospital, army
Introductions
If you were an animal,
which animal would you be?
Let's practice
Business examples
Grid
Proportions
Fibonacci
Golden Section
Examples
Classification
When to use which type?
"I can't draw" -> no problem! Technology will save us
Intercultural
Communication
Coca Cola around the world
USA
Germany
China
very structured, clear categories
crowded, people, faces
rules
vs.
relationships
Glocalized websites
Visual CV
Data
and performances
Degrafa
Anychart

for creating charts, Gantt charts, diagrams, calendars/schedulers, maps, tables, sparklines, etc.
www.visualisingdata.com
Data Visualization Tools
1. Overcoming linguistic barriers
2. Providing double cues
3. Seeing the Big Picture
4. Surface misunderstanding
5. Prevent personal conflict
and the relations
* Power distance
Benefits
1. Color
2. Direction
3. Icons and symbols
4. Humor
6. Focus of attention
7. Nature of thought
5. Visual metaphors
7 main factors of cross-cultural differences
Visualization is a universal language.
True?
Yes
No
Source: United Nations ESCWA public report
Jamae Mosque, Singapore
Conventions of pictorial representation are culture-bound (Scott, 1990)
In the United States it is typical and welcome to use humor in business conversations (Lewis, 1999), but in many other countries it is perceived as inappropriate, offensive and might not even be understood as humor
Metaphors fulfill their function only if they can be understood cross-culturally (Hogan 2007)
Only a handful of sports are well known globally (Beamer & Varner, 2008)
Field dependence-independence (Witkin and Berry, 1975)
Change blindness (Masuda & Nisbett, 2006)
Westerners: favor abstract and analytic reasoning, rules, categorization
East Asians: holistic view of the world, focus on relationships and similarities
(Nisbett & Miyamoto, 2005)
Bresciani S., Eppler M. (2010). Glocalizing visual communication in organizations,
In: Bertagni, B., La Rosa M., Salvetti, F., Glocal working (pp. 233-251). Milan: Franco Angeli.
Goal:
map your resume/curriculum/life/portfolio

Application:
as addition/structure to your CV/portfolio, map of your website/blog, etc.

Format:
static, online, map, metaphor, diagram, sketch, video, poster, animation, interactive, website, etc.


No mind maps, no tag clouds,
no slide share, no pie charts,
no decoration of classic CVs, please!
Get inspiration at:
Google images: visual resume
http://www.vizualresume.com
http://feltron.com
http://pinterest.com/rtkrum/infographic-visual-resumes/
http://mashable.com/2011/02/21/dynamic-digital-resumes/
http://mashable.com/2011/01/17/tips-video-resumes/
(On your website, blog, LinkedIn, Pinterest...)
Be prepared to see it go viral
“You are the storyteller of your own life, and you can create your own legend,
or not.”
Isabel Allende
Creative & Professional

=> It needs to be targeted to the audience (consultancy vs. bank)

=> use visualization to give insight!
Not for decoration


http://www.rleonardi.com/interactive-resume/
+ possibly share it online
Your interests:
http://www.ted.com/talks/tom_wujec_on_3_ways_the_brain_creates_meaning.html
Visuospatial reasoning
http://prezi.com/lupa1gyslxq-/my-visual-cv/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy
Examples
Video
Visual display of the most important information needed to achieve one or more objectives
which fits entirely on a single computer screen
so it can be monitored at a glance
(= show visually what's going on)

Based in Zurich

Network security, application delivery, identity management and global connectivity

24x7

www.open.ch
Dashboard
Fingerprint

- anti-aliases fonts and graphics
- scales vector objects
How many words? Which font size?
How many slides?
Beyond PPT
3D virtual worlds:
(SecondLife)

Flash animations

Videos, and animated films


Mapping Software:
(Prezi, lets-focus.com, mind-maps



Posters, murals
Templates + post-its

Sketching

Digital
Analogue
What
Why
+ integrating simulations , holistic
- time-consuming to develop.
+ engage an audience emotionally
- require some video editing skills
+ complex animations, interaction
- time consuming to prepare
+ personal touch, allows interaction
- cannot be seen clearly; need sketching skills
+ physical presence,
- cannot be seen clearly
The limits of PowerPoint
(Social)
Entrepreneurship

Source: http://www.slideshare.net/Alex.Osterwalder/business-models-beyond-profit-social-entrepreneurship-lecture-wise-etienne-eichenberger-iqbal-quadir-grameen-bank-grameen-phone
http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas
Business Model Canvas
What is SE
Visualization for SE
Idea generation
Idea refinement
Idea promotion & fundrising
Scaling
Planning
Sales and instructions
Measuring/monitoring
a template
Our studies
Strategy communication across cultures
Communicating strategy
- with text vs. visual
- with culture-specific visuals
Source: Bresciani S., Eppler M., Tan, M., (2011). Communicating Strategy Across Cultures with Visualization: An Experimental Evaluation. Academy of Management annual meeting, 12-16 August 2011: San Antonio, Texas. Carolyn Dexter Award nominee.
Does it work?
360 experienced managers in Europe and Asia
Results:
- strategy is perceived as better

when it is visualized
- subjects are more committed to implement it!

Cultural preferences:
- Westerners prefer linear abstract diagrams
- Non-westerners prefer metaphors and story-telling
+ holistic logic, zoom in-out, easy to create
(PowToons, Videoscribe)
(Adobe Flash)
Moke-ups
Resources:
https://public.treemap.com/Forbes%20Global%202000%20-%202014.mtm
http://www.treemap.com/datasets/global2000/
Full transcript