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# Copy of Linear Elements

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## asmaa serry

on 25 December 2012

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#### Transcript of Copy of Linear Elements

Linear Elements Linear Elements Beams Frames Thank You Frame is a structure used to
resist vertical forces (for example
(for example wind, and earthquakes).
They are used to prevent rotations in
the structures. Presented By:
Group 4
Presented To :
Dr. Abdel Wahab El-Ghandour Frames Trusses Arches Example of frame structure Trusses A truss bridge is a bridge whose load-bearing superstructure is composed of a truss. This truss is a structure of connected elements forming triangular units. The connected elements (typically straight) may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads Concrete dimensions: Span from 20 to 40 m compressed member's thickness equals to L/40 tensioned member's thickness equals to L/50 the height of the truss equals to L/6 to 8 (H) . Bending Moment Diagram: Arches Arches are structural systems that carry load primarily through a state of pure axial compression. Types of arches 2 Hinged Concrete dimensions: Maximum distance (20-40)m.
Beam thickness = L/ 20 to 25 . Concrete dimensions: Bending Moment : b-Continous beams Concrete dimensions: Span=12.
Beam length=L/12. Bending Moment Diagram: Bending Moment Diagram: Conclusion linear elements are extremely important in the construction process since they carry both the dead and live loads of the construction and by the passage of time we were able to discover and develop more and more types of linear elements until we reached the 5 types dicussed before in which each one of them has a specific usage . 3 Hinged Hingless It is a beam supported freely at the two ends on walls or columns Beams Concrete dimensions: Bending Moment Diagram: A continuous beam is a structural component that provides resistance to bending when a load or force is applied.commonly used in bridges,has more than two supports along it's length. Bending moment equals to zero. types of truss: Allan truss Baltimore truss Bollman truss Bowstring arch truss Brown truss second way: Rigid frames Braced frames Pin-ended Gabbled frames Portal frames Span=(12-22)m.
Beam length=L/12 to 14. Bailey bridge Disadvantages of arches: Although arch bridges are extremely efficient in terms of material consumption , but they are relatively expensive to build since they require the arch to be supported by temporary structure during the construction process. Advantages:
•Optimum use of floor space.
•Easy construction.
•Rapid construction.
•Economical for high rise buildings. Disadvantages: • Span lengths are limited when using normal reinforced concrete (generally less than about 13 m, but up to about 15 m). Fix-ended frames span=10m.
Beam length=L/10 Has no bending moment. Types of Frames can be classified by two first way: three hinged frame two hinged frame fixed frame cantilever frame double cantilever frame a-Simple Beams: It is a beam based at only one end. c-cantilever beam: Concrete dimensions: span=5m.
beam's depth=L/5. Bending moment diagram: ways: Bending moment diagrams: vierendeel vierendeel Force distribution: an open-web truss with vertical members but without diagonald and with rigid joints. Concrete dimensions: span=20-40m.
member's thickness=L/20. Bending moment diagram:
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