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Mass Society in the 19th Century
Transcript of Mass Society in the 19th Century
a society whose members are characterized by having segmentalized, impersonal relations, a high degree of physical and social mobility, a spectator relation to events, and a pronounced tendency to conform to external popular norms. Many cities were redesigned as the masses quickly flocked Restrictive, defensive walls were taken down and wide boulevards created Government stepped in... Boulevards proved both militarily and aesthetically pleasing. Now, civil disturbances were more easily controlled; and city streets appeared open, inviting, and beautiful. Gardens and parks were constructed to stress the importance of leisure, recreation, and time away from the still-drab working conditions. In Paris, Emperor Napoleon III illustrated an affinity to the middle class as he replaced old residential districts with theaters, retail stores, museums, etc. Roads were put to good use as middle-class populations took advantage of streetcar and commuter train lines. "Mass education" was a logical outgrowth of 19th Century mass society Education soon grew into state-run systems; and attempts were ardent to make it compulsory. Incentives.... Industrial--school would provide skilled labor needed Political--impress patriotism, nationalize the masses Societal--girls taught domestic skills, boys practical Increase in literacy led to literature for the masses--sensationalistic newspapers, specialty magazines, "pulp fiction." "Mass leisure"surfaces Work and leisure became two separate worlds Technology aided recreation
Increased independence (could travel to sporting events, music halls, etc.)
Music/dance halls very popular for lower classes--escapism Mass tourism
Team sports developed into highly organized associations, like the English Football Association, American Bowling Congress, Rugby Football Union, and professional baseball. Professionalized for adults; hope for youth was to instill a sense of teamwork Mass spectator sports boomed as transportation allowed easy access to large stadiums. Urban workers would displace their feelings of unappreciation or loss of identity in new loyalties toward teams Mass amusement distracted citizens from reality of rough working conditions Emergence of.. Dramatic population growth
Decline in death rates due to medical discoveries and improved environmental conditions (water/sewage/pasteurization of milk)
Emigration from southern and eastern Europe Urban environment
Great migrations from rural to cities
Improved conditions--urban reformers, boards of health, building regulations, emphasis on housing Criticisms Jose Ortega y Gasset's novel "Revolt of the Masses"
Criticizes the European "mass man"
Despises extreme conformity
"The mass is the average man...man as undifferentiated from other men, but as repeating in himself a generic type"