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Time and Cause Adverbs

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Jennifer McCullough

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of Time and Cause Adverbs

Time and Cause Adverbs
Time Adverbs
and
Cause Connectors

Structure and Written Expression
Skill #7
Sentences with adverb clauses have two basic patterns in English. Study the clauses and
connectors in the following sentences:

I will sign the check
before
you leave.

Before

you leave, I will sign the check
.
clause
time connector
Example
____ was late, I missed the appointment.
(A) I
(B) Because
(C) The train
(D) Since he


There are two clauses
( ____ was late,)

( I missed the appointment)

Therefore you need a
connector
. You also need a
subject
for the first clause.

Answers A and C provide the subject but not the cause conncector.
Answer B provides the cause connector but not the subject
Answer D provides both the cause connector and the subject

Adverb Time and Cause Connectors
Time

after
as
as long as
as soon as
before
by the time
once
since
until
when
whenever
while
Cause

as
because
in as much
now that
since

Review - Coordinating Conjuctions
Many sentences in English have more than one clause.

A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.

Whenever you find a sentence on the TOEFL test with more than one clause;

make sure every subject has a verb
make sure every verb has a subject


Next you need to check that the various clauses in the sentence are correctly joined.

There are various ways to join clauses in English. Certain patterns appear frequently in English and on the TOEFL test.

Tom is singing,
and
Paul is dancing.
Tom is tall,
but
Paul is short.
F A N B O Y S
o n o u r e o
r d r t t
Exercise 7
Answers
1. C
2. I missing subject
3. C
4. I missing connector
5. C
6. I missing verb
7. I missing subject
8. C
9. C
10. I missing coma
Use Other Adverb Connectors Correctly
Skill 8
Adverb Clauses express -
time
and
cause
Adverb Clauses can also express other ideas such as
condition
,
contrast
,
manner
and
place
.
Other Adverb Clauses

Have the same construction as the time and cause connectors.

I will leave at 7:00
if
I am ready.

Although
I was late, I managed to catch the train.

Example

You will get a good grade on the exam
(adverb connector)

provided
______________.

A. studying
B. study
C. to study
D.
you study
Because provided is a connector and comes in the middle of the sentence it must be followed by a subject and a verb.
Other Adverb Connectors
condition contrast manner place

if although as where
in case even though in that wherever
provided though
providing while
unless while
whether whereas
S V adverb connector S V
Bob went to school even though he felt sick.

adverb connector S V S V
Even though Bob felt he went to school.


Exercise 8 Answers
1. C
2. I missing connector
3. I missing verb
4. C
5. I missing subject
6. C
7. I missing verb
8. I missing comma
9. C
10. C
Go over homework
Reading - Surgery

TOEFL Prep 1
1. mark
2. add to
3. added difficulty
4. very overweight
5. heal
TOEFL Prep 2
1. procedure
2. obese
3. anesthesia
4. cure
5. injecting
TOEFL Success
1. C
2. D
IDIOMS
"Skeleton in you closet"
Homework

Structure and Written Expression Packet

page 112 Exercise (Skills 6-8)
TOEFL Exercises (Skills 6-8)
page 113 TOEFL Exercises (Skills 1-8)

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