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Chapter 22 Section 4
Transcript of Chapter 22 Section 4
Bismarck was determined to build a strong, unified German States, with Prussia at its head.
Otto von Bismarck succeeded where others had failed.
Although Bismarck was the architect of German unity, he was not really a German nationalist. His primary loyalty was to the Hohenzollerns, the ruling dynasty of Prussia. Through unification, he hoped to bring more power to the Hohenzollerns.
Bismarck led Prussia into three wars. Each war increased Russian prestige and power and paved the way for German unity
Bismarck first moved to build up the Prussian army as prime minister.
Bismarck's first move was an alliance in 1864 with Austria.
Bismarck then attacked Austria and created a new confederation lead by Prussia.
In FRANCE, the Prussian victory over Austria angered Napoleon III which lead to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
Bismarck called upon German nationalism and the French suffered a humiliating defeat.
Happy with the defeat, the Germans, in 1871, gave birth to the second Reich.
For centuries, Italy had been a battleground for ambitious foreign and local princes. Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people to identify with local regions.
The Congress of Vienna ignored nationalists and hoped to achieve unity.
Mazzini helped set up a revolutionary republic in Rome, but French forces soon toppled it. Like many other nationalists, Mazzini spent much of his life in exile, plotting and dreaming of a united Italy,
To nationalists reminded Italians of the glories of ancient Rome and the medieval papacy. To others, a united Italy would end trade barriers among the Italians states and stimulate industry.
After 1848, leadership of the Risorgimento (the Italian nationalist movement) passed to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
In 1852, Count Cavour became the prime minister. He wanted to end Austrian power in Italy and annex provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
In 1858, Cavour made a secret deal with France that said it would aid Sardinia with a war with Austria. This helped Sardinia annex Lombrady.
In southern Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi, a nationalist, recruited 1000 red-shirted volunteers and took over Sicily.
Alarmed by Garibaldi's success, Cavour urged Victor Emmanuel to send troops to deal with him, but the troops linked up with Garibaldi and his forces
Then Garibaldi turned his country to Victor. In after a deal with Bismarck and the Franco - Prussian War, Italy was a united land.
Italy had strong regional rivalries that left them unable to solve critical national issues.
Germany had ample iron and coal resources. The middle class and educated professionals helped create a productive and effective society.
Germans saw the value of applied science in developing new products and supported scientific research
Bismarck, a Lutheran, didn't like Catholics and tried to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above allegiance to the Church but the faithful rallied behind the Church.
Bismarck also hated socialists but the German people did not abandon socialism.
William II, the new kaiser was supremely confident in his abilities.
He believed that his right to rule came from God.
William II provided services such as cheap transportation and electricity.
He had an excellent system of public schools.
He also launched an ambitious campaign to expand their navy.
His nationalism and military stance helped increase tensions on the eve of World War I.
Section 4: Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
Austria's disastrous defeat in 1866 lead to the Dual monarchy of Austria- Hungary
Hungary was happy with this but the Slavic's were not. By the early 1900s, nationalist unrest often left the government fearful.
During the 1800s, various subject peoples staged revolts against the Ottomans, hoping to set up their own government.
Seeing the Ottoman Empire as weak, European countries scramble to get as much land as possible.
The subject peoples revolted and fought amongst themselves. This caused this region to be known as the "Balkan powder keg"
Section 5: Russia: Reform and Reaction
In Russia, the landowning nobles dominated. The middle class was tiny and serfs (laborers) had no power.
For centuries, Tsars had ruled with absolute power.
In 1861, Alexander II finally freed the serfs.
Along with emancipation, Alexander II set up a system of zemstvos and legal reforms.
After Alexander II is assassinated, there are harsher methods.
Under Alexander III and Nicholas II, Russia entered the industrial age.
On Sunday, January 22, 1905, troops fired at the marchers and there was slaughter. This was a turning point for Russians.
After, strikes started and finally Russia introduced moderate land reforms.