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Biology Project

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Sarah Franklin

on 11 April 2014

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Transcript of Biology Project

Organisms of
Deadhorse Prudhoe Bay, AK, USA
Food Web
Of Deadhorse Prudhoe Bay
World Location
Deadhorse Prudhoe Bay, AK, USA
Ecology Project
Sarah Franklin
Craig Per. 2
Deadhorse Prudhoe Bay
Symbiotic Relationships
of organisms
for Deadhorse Prudhoe Bay
Current Ecological Issues
of Deadhorse Prudhoe Bay
Current Ecological Issues:
permafrost: a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains frozen throughout the year
An even bigger threat to the Alaskan tundra comes from global warming, which is a result of oil and gas development. These developments melt the permafrost layer in the tundra, which could end up radically changing the landscape and the species able to live there.
A major ecological threat to the tundra in Alaska comes from oil and gas development created by humans. When these disturbances are created, the economy around it becomes majorly affected. With more oil and gas being created, the land becomes harmed as oil spills damage the ecosystem, kill wildlife, and destroy habitats and food resources for the organisms. This ultimately results in global warming.
commensalism: an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm
parasitism: a relation between two kinds of organisms in which one recieves benefits from the other by causing damage to it
mutualism: symbiosis that is beneficial to both organisms involved
Lichens that live in tundra biomes are developed from a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an algae or cyanobacteria. The fungus provides a tough, waterproof body able to withstand extreme environments on rocks and tree trunks. It is good at obtaining water and secretes acids to dissolve minerals from the rocks. It also produces carbon dioxide. All of these materials are then funneled to the endosymbiotic algae or cyanobacteria, which use the materials in photosynthesis and produce sugars which are then shared with the fungus.
Rangifer tarandus
White Wagtail
Motacilla alba
Tundra Shrew
Sorex tundrensis
This climatogram shows that the highest temperatures of the region are in the summer, while the lowest temperature points take place during the winter. This makes sense, being a region in the northern hemisphere. It also shows that the temperature is usually consistent as it increases and decreases, and there are no sudden spikes or outliers in the data that make it unusual. It shows that the average temperature does not get above five degrees Celcius and is normally below zero; this is a very cold climate and is cold year round.
Precipitation is fairly constant throughout the year. From December to May, the rate is about 45 mm. It only differs to over 60 mm in June and November, and for the other 4 summer months is only about 20 mm. This can conclude that overall it is a fairly dry climate.
Simulium yahense
Black Fly
fun fact: gain nourishment by feeding on the blood of mammals
Genus: Simulium
Species: yahense
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Rangifer
Species: tarandus
fun fact: both sexes of caribou grow antlers (males' are larger
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Motacillidae
Genus: Motacilla
Species: alba
fun fact: constantly wags its long, white "tail feather"
Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Soricomorpha
Family: Soricidae
Genus: Sorex
Species: tundrensis
fun fact: its fur grows longer during the winter
Bombus polaris
Arctic Bumblebee
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ArthropodaClass: InsectaOrder: HymenopteraFamily: ApidaeGenus: BombusSubgenus: AlpinobombusSpecies: polaris
fun fact: has dense fur that slows heat loss
primary producer:
Autotrophic organisms that synthesise organic materials from inorganic materials, effectively introducing new organic material into the environment that the primary consumers can feed upon.
primary consumer:
Any organism that consumes or feeds on autotrophs or decaying matter.
secondary consumer:
An organism that largely feeds on primary consumers.
An organism whose ecological function involves the recycling of nutrients by performing the natural process of decomposition as it feeds on dead or decaying organisms.
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Class: Entognatha
Subclass: Collembola
fun fact: they are less than 6 mm and live beneath the soil
Rangifer tarandus
White Wagtail
Motacilla alba
Arctic Bumblebee
Bombus polaris
Sorex Tundrensis
Simulium yahense
primary producer
Arctic Liverwort
primary producer
Pasque Flower
Anemone patens
Arctic Fox
Arctic Grass
Tundra Shrew
Black Fly
primary producer
primary producer
Alaska Regional Profiles, Northwest Region. Anchorage, AK. 143+. Print.

Davidson, Elaine. "Invertebrates of the Tundra." EHow. Demand Media, 04 June 2011. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

"Symbiosis." Marietta College. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

"Terrestrial Life in the Arctic." Marine Science. 13 Oct. 2003. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

"The Tundra Biome." Biomes of the World. Marietta College. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

"Tundra Climate Graph: Alaska." Biomes. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

"Tundra Plants." 2001. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

"Tundra Threats." National Geographic. National Geographic. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

Wild Alaska. Perf. Richardseeley. YouTube. YouTube, 09 Sept. 2010. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.
When the caribou is on the lookout for food, the arctic fox follows it. Then, when the caribou digs the ground snow in a quest to find food, it digs up the soil and slightly exposes, or at least brings closer to the surface some of the subnivean mammals, with whom the arctic fox shares a predator prey relationships in the tundra. Once the caribou is done with its hunting, the arctic fox then follows and digs further deep and gets its food in the form of the mammals. In this way, the arctic fox benefits from the caribou without putting the caribou in jeopardy.
Tapeworms in general are parasitic, but some of these tapeworms, liver tapeworm cysts, live in the arctic tundra. These creatures grow inside larger mammals (from larvae), such as caribou, and feed on the nutrients in the host body. This eventually leads to malnutrition in the host body, which can lead to death in extreme cases.
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