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History of Programming Languages

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Jake Antifaev

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of History of Programming Languages

The History
of Programming Languages 1948 [Plankalkül] Plankalkül (Plan Calculus) was a computer programming language designed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse. There wasn't much of an significance because Konrad tried several times to “advertise” his programming language but at his time, nobody was interested. 1943 [ENIAC Coding System] The ENIAC was used to calculate artillery firing tables for the United State’s Army. It had speeds one thousand times faster than electro-mechanical machines. The government was able to have an extra lead in any wars, and the ENIAC set new speed goals for electro-mechanical machines that still cannot be beaten. 1955 [FORTAN] FORTAN (FORmula TRANslator) was used for numeric computation and scientific computing. It was developed by IBM. Fortran ended up ruling for half a century. It was later used for stuff such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics and computational chemistry. It is still used as a language for programs that benchmark and rank the world’s fastest super computers. 1958 [Lisp] Lisp (Locatior/Identifier Seperation Protocol) originally created as a mathematical notation for computer programs.Significance: The language was favored and used for artificial intelligence research. Lisp also was responsible for a lot of stuff, including tree data structures, automatic storage management, dynamic typing, and self-hosting compiler. 1959 [COBOL] Cobol (Common Business-Oriented Language) was used for business, finance and administrative systems in companies and the government. COBOL’s goal was to take over the common business language title and was sponsored by the United States Department of Defense whom held a meeting with six computer manufactures (Burroughs Corporation, IBM, Minneapolis-Honeywell, RCA, Sperry Rand and Sylvania Electric Products. As well as three government agencies (US Air Force, the Navy’s David Taylor Model Basin, and The National Bureau of Standards). COBOL is still used to do this day, and has been fitted with our era programming languages. 1960 [ALGOL 60] ALGOL 60 (ALGOrithmic Language 1960) was the first language implementing nested function definitions with lexical scope. ALGOL 60 is responsible for many programming languages in it’s future, like BCPL, B, Pascal, Simula, and C. It also introduced begin and end pairs for programmers. 1962 [SIimula] 1964 [BASIC] Simula was designed to do simulations and provided framework for many of the features of object-oriented languages today. Simula has been used in a wide range of application such as VLSI, process modeling, protocols, algorithms, typesetting, computer graphics, and education. Bjarne Stroustrup the creator of C++ said Simula was his biggest influence to create C++. Simula was designed to do simulations and provided framework for many of the features of object-oriented languages today. Simula has been used in a wide range of application such as VLSI, process modeling, protocols, algorithms, typesetting, computer graphics, and education. Bjarne Stroustrup the creator of C++ said Simula was his biggest influence to create C++. Mid-70’s [Smalltalk] Early 1970’s [ML] ML was developed by Robin Milner. It was to be used to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover. It is known for its use of Hindley-Milner type inference algorithm, which can automatically infer the types of most expressions without requiring explicit type annotations. It also influenced the big programming language C++. 1972 [Prolog] Prolog’s general purpose was to provide logic programming associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Prolog is still popular to this date and has been used to stretch into different areas such as theorem proving, expert systems, games, automated answering systems, ontology’s and sophisticated control systems. 1969 – 1973 [C] C is a general-purpose programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie. Its design provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions. Significance: C is now one of the most widely programming languages of all time, there are very few computer architectures for which a C compiler doesn’t exist. May languages borrowed from C, including C#, D, Go, Java, JavaScript, Limbo, LPC, Perl, PHP, Python, and Unix’s C Shell. Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language. It was created to underpin the “new world” of computing. Smalltalk was also used for education use, but more so for constructionist learning. To this day, languages similar to Smalltalk still exist and are being actively developed. Some big ones are Ruby, Python, PHP 5, and Java. 1983 [C++] C++ is a statically typed, free form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is an intermediate-level language because it contains both high-level and low-level language features. The creator of C - Bjarne Stroustrup, also developed it. C++ is one of the most popular programming languages to date. It is implemented in lots of hardware and operating system platforms. It has influenced other big programming languages like Perl, Java, PHP and C#. Microsoft, Intel and Sun Studio even acquired the language and created their own compilers. 1986 [Objective-C] Objective-C is a general-purpose, high level, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. Apple uses Objective-C for the OS X and iOS operating systems, including their respective APIs: Cocoa and Cocoa Touch. It was the main language used by NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system. 1987 [Perl] Developed by Larry Wall – Perl was originally going to be used as a Unix scripting language to report processing easier. Perl is now used for things like graphic programming, system administration, network programming, finance, bioinformatics, and many other applications. People call it “the Swiss Army chainsaw of scripting languages” because of its flexibility, options, and power. 1991 Python is an interpreted high-level programming. It’s known for it’s clear and expressive code readability. Python is free and open source. It has changed a lot in the programming world. Although it’s often used as a scripting language, it’s similar to Scheme, Ruby, Perl and Tcl. 1991 Microsoft made Visual Basic for its COM programming model. It was designed to be easy to learn and use. It allowed programmers to use the RAD (rapid application development) of GUI (graphic user interface), access databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects or ActiveX Data Objects. 1991 [HTML] HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the main markup language for web pages and other information that can be shown on a web browser. HTML is the building blocks of all websites. It’s needed just to start building one – without it; there most likely wouldn’t be good or stable websites. It allows programmers to use images, objects. 1995 Java is a programming language developed by James Gosling. It bridges off from C and C++. Its general purpose is to “write once, run anywhere”, meaning that code that runs on one platform doesn't need to be recompiled to run on another. Java is used for programming on both the personal computer and smart phones. It is run on over 1.1 billion desktops 3 billion phones – it is also used for programming Androids. 1995 [Embarcadero Delphi] Delphi uses it’s own Object Pascal and generate native code for 32 & 64 bit Windows and 32 bit Mac OS X and iOS. Borland developed Delphi as a rapid application development tool developed it for Windows. Delphi is just another programming language with the ability to compile on both Mac and Windows. There is honestly nothing really significant about it. 1995 [JavaScript] JavaScript is a prototype-based scripting language that is dynamic, weekly typed and has first-class functions. It was formalized in the ECMAScript language and is used in the form of client-side JavaScript as a part of a Web browser. JavaScript is now used on a most websites on the Internet. It’s being used for more uses, such as PDF documents, site-specific browser and desktop widgets. A notable creation is Node.js which is a software system designed for writing large Internet applications and web servers. 1995 PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language designed for Web development. It’s the first to be embedded into an HTML source. A Web server with a PHP processor module interprets PHP. PHP now has over 20 million Web sites used PHP and over 1 million Web servers have it installed. It’s highly known in the programming world and large software’s like MediaWiki, Joomla, Wordpress, Concrete5, MyBB, and Drupal use PHP. 2000 [ActionScript] Developed by Macromedia Inc, ActionScript is an object-oriented language that is dialect of ECMAScript. It is primarily for development of websites and software towards the Adobe Flash Player platform. ActionScript now allows a lot more control and code reusability when building complex Flash applications. It can also be used with XML. 2001 [Visual Basic .NET] Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET) is an object-oriented computer programming language that can be viewed as an evolution of Visual Basic (VB). Microsoft Visual Studio 2010, which is commercial software, and Visual Basic Express Edition 2012, which is free of charge, is a command-line compiler. It’s used for programming in .NET easier. 2011 Influenced by Java and JavaScript, Dart is an open source Web programming language developed by Google. Dart’s goal is “ultimately to replace JavaScript as the lingua franca of web development on the open web platform”. It’s intended to solve JavaScript’s problems while offering better performance. The ability “to be more easily tooled for large-scale projects” and better security features. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_programming_languages http://readwrite.com/2011/07/27/the-history-of-programming-languages-infographic?&_suid=135092634650802610767921432853 Sources: http://www.levenez.com/lang/
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