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Roller Costers-Past, Present, Future

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by

Emily Kerr

on 10 May 2011

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Transcript of Roller Costers-Past, Present, Future

Roller Coasters-Past, Present, Future What is a roller coaster? Roller Coaster-a small gravity railroad, especially in an amusement park, having a train with open cars that moves along a high, sharply winding trestle built with steep inclines that produce sudden, speedy plunges for thrill-seeking passengers. Roller coasters were first invented in Russia in 1784. The first rollercoasters were made of lumber with a sheet of ice that is several inches thick. One of the most famous roller coasters in history is the Thunderbolt in Kennywood located in Pittsburgh, PA. Some extreme roller coasters are:
The Cyclone
The Beast
Superman: Ride of Steel
Boulder Dash
Dueling Dragons
Son of Beast
X
Top Thirill Dragster
Millineum Force
Kingda Ka What makes them so extreme? The Thunderbolt is famous because it lacks the modern restraints such as seat dividers and head restraints. Therefore, it gives the daredevils that ride the Thunderbolt the experience of a classic rollercoaster. The Kingda Ka has a famous
hill that is 129 feet tall! The Beast is the world's longest-running wooden roller coaster! Roller coasters are made possible by these forces:
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
Inertia
Gravity
Velocity
G-force
Friction
Centripetal acceleration
Conservation of Energy What makes roller coasters work? The first roller coaster built in America was the Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway in the mountains of Pennsylvania in the mid-1800s. Newton's first law of motion states that an object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion tends to remain in motion. A roller coaster does not move at first until hauled to the top of an incline. Once the roller coaster reaches the top of the hill, it accelerates and remains in motion for several rises and falls, slowed and then accelerated again by gravity. Roller coasters lose energy to friction along the track and air resistance. Once this momentum is used up, it again has to be pulled to the top of an incline, and start down again. To control its speed, and at the end, brakes have to be used to slow it down.
Roller coaster riders will experience occasional apparent increases or decreases in body weight during a roller coaster ride. The momentum of going forward will push them down in their seats at the bottom. But as the finish at the top of the hill, their bodies will continue to go upward out of the seats. It is for this reason that restraining bars are necessary. Newton's second law of motion states that the acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied. When a roller coaster goes down a steep hill, gravity makes the roller coaster speed up, and going up a hill, it slows down. The higher the incline, the greater its acceleration and the greater its speed becomes by the time it reaches the bottom. Newton's third law of motion states that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. Since a roller coaster is on a ramp, the ramp has to support the weight of the roller coaster, especially when it turns it back up against gravity at the bottom of each incline. The rollers on each car also prevent the cars from leaving the track on turns, by exerting a controlling force using the sides and upper half of the track. Inertia plays a big roll in roller coasters. If an object is standing still, it won't move until an external force pushes or pulls it. Mass plays a big part, too. The more mass an object has, the more inertia it has.
To travel in a circle, a force pointing to the inside of the curve, is needed. The force pointing to the inside is called the centripetal force. Therefore, when roller coasters turn, centripetal forces is what makes those turns possible. Are you ready for some fun
facts about roller coasters? Two of the fastest roller coasters are Steel Force and the Desperado. They both go 80 miles per hour. They are the fastest coasters out of steel and wooden roller coasters. In our opinion, the future roller coaster
will be able to go even more extreme.
They'll be able to go off the track and
land back on it. An innovation we picture in future amusement
parks is a harness that uses magnetisim to hold
you into the roller coaster. It would be a single
detatchable harness that you could keep for the
day. It would attatch to every roller coaster in the
park.
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