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Connective Tissues_student copy

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by

Lisa Quinn

on 14 December 2015

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Transcript of Connective Tissues_student copy

Overview
Basic function and components of connective tissue


Classification of connective tissue


Examples of connective tissue in body

Connective tissue diseases
Connective Tissues
Connective Tissue
Connects, binds, structural and metabolic support for parenchymal tissue...

Consists of few cells within a bed of collagen, other extracellular fibres (ECF) and ground substance
Function and role of connective tissue
Types of
support

cells

Types of
EC fibres
(fibrillar
proteins)
Character
of
ground substance
Support
cells
Fibroblasts
Chondrocytes
Osteocytes
Adipocytes
Macrophages
Extracellular matrix
Extracellular fibres
Collagen
Elastic fibres
Produce the extracellular fibres and
ground substance of most tissues





Maintain extracellular matrix!!
Collagen
Elastic
Reticular
Large nucleus
Small quantity of cytoplasm
Rough endoplasmic
reticulum (RER)
Abundant RER for production of fibres and other components of ECM
Phagocytic cells involved in inflammatory and immunological defence
Other cells involved in defence include mast cells and WBC
Indented/kidney shaped nucleus
Surface has numerous
folds/projections
Lyosomes +++
(black circles)
Lysosomes and surface
projections allow for phagocytosis
Specialised to store fat

Adipose tissue = accumulation of large numbers of adipocytes
Contain large fat droplet
Thin rim of cytoplasm
and peripheral nucleus
Large store of fatty acids which can be released from adipose tissue

Thermal insulation

*Bubblewrap!!"
Synthesis of extracellular matrix components in cartilage
Maintenance of extracellular matrix components (bone)

(trapped osteoblasts)
Prominent RER within cytoplasm (Cy)

Small cytoplasmic extensions- mediate constant interaction with matrix
Reticular fibres
(type of collagen)
Most abundant and important fibrillar protein

Provide tensile strength

(16 different types of collagen)
Microfibrils
(3 primary protein chains in super helix)
Fibres (fibrils)
Bundles
Organised in
ropes/cable/thriple helix
(cross linked between)
Bundles
of fine, threadlike structures (contain fibres and microfibrils)
Bundles have banding pattern due to arrangement of molecules
Rope or
cable-type organisation of primary protein chains
- high tensile strength
Reticulin

Thin fibres of type III collagen




Thin fibrils-
thread/mesh-like
Fine scaffolding supporting
specialised extracellular
matrix components

e.g
in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow
support haemopoetic and lymphoid tissue
Contain elastin and fibrillin

Hydrophobic protein

Assemble in to filaments and sheets ( by crosslinking)
Do not bundle to form thick fibres
Elastic fibres show random coily structure
Random coiling of elastin molecule
confers ability to stretch and recoil back to original state
Ground substance
Protein
Glycoprotein
Lipids
Water
Glycosaminoglycans
(GAGs)
Ground substance
Connective tissue fibres
Classification of Connective Tissue Types
Vary structure of connective tissue by varying amounts of support cells, fibrillar proteins and ground substance
Loose connective
Submucosa of gut wall
How would you describe this connective tissue?
Fibres thin and sparse
Ground substance more abundant
Other examples of loose connective tissue in body
Aroelar tissue
Deep to skin
Adventitia of blood vessels
Submucosa of resp and GI tract
Superficial fascia
Adipose tissue
Under skin
Around joints
Around organs
Dense connective tissue
Dense irregular
Dense regular
Dermis
How would you describe this connective tissue?
Decreased cells and ground substance
Increased fibres
Fibres haphazardly arranged
Allows to counteract multidirectional forces
Tendon
How would you describe this connective tissue?
Decreased cells and ground substance
Increased fibres
Fibres arranged in orderly fashion
Confer maximum tensile strength
Other examples of dense irregular connective tissue?
Deep Fascia
Periosteum
Dura Mater
Other examples of dense regular connective tissue?
Aponeurosis
(flattened tensons)
Ligaments
Connective Tissue Disorders
Identify examples of connective tissue on limb prosections and plastic models
Loose
Dense
irregular
Dense
regular
Marfan's Syndrome
Autosomal dominant

Genetic defect that codes for fibrillin (chrms 15)

Abnormal fibrillin leads to undeveloped elastic fibres
Ehlers- Danlos Syndrome
At least 10 subtypes
Abnormal crosslinking within collagen fibres
Joint laxity
Hyperextensibility of skin
MV prolapse
Aortic dissection
Aortic aneurysms
Partial dislocation of lens
Abnormal tallness
Arachnodactyly
Hypermobility of joints
Image from: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/ctpropfs.html
Image from: https://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/1c-osseous-tissue-images/deck/3142177
Image from: https://www.netterimages.com/electron-micrograph-of-a-chondrocyte-in-hyaline-cartilage-of-the-trachea-unlabeled-13502.html
Image from: http://www.indiana.edu/~anat215/virtualscope2/docs/chap2_1.htm
Image from: http://images.rheumatology.org/viewphoto.php?imageId=6087170
Image from: https://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/phass-521-study-guide-2013-14-min/deck/8691481
Image from: http://gallery.ctsnet.org/index.php/Adult-Cardiac/Diseases-of-the-Aorta/Miscellaneous-Aorta/11-cm-aortic-root-aneurysm-in-marfan-syndrome
Image: http://www.riversideonline.com/health_reference/Disease-Conditions/DS00540.cfm
Image: http://doctorsgates.blogspot.co.uk/2010/05/ehlers-danlos-syndrome.html
Image: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/943567-overview
Image: https://inthefringes.wordpress.com/2014/01/18/whats-it-like-relocating-your-own-dislocated-joints/
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