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Communicating in teams and oganizations

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rochelle tolentino

on 27 August 2013

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Transcript of Communicating in teams and oganizations

Communication Barriers (Noise)
Ambiguity of Languages
Filtering messages
>the lifeblood of the organization
>the process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people.
Communication Channels
Social Acceptance
> refers to how well the communication medium is approved and supported by the organization, teams, and individuals.
What is a communication noise?
> refers to influences on effective communication that influence the interpretation of conversations. while often looked over, communication noise can have a profound impact both on our perception of interactions with others and our analysis of our own communication proficiency.
Improving Communication throughout Hierarchy

The Importance of Communication
Model of Communication
Influences on Effective Encoding and Decoding
1. Communication Channel Proficiency.
2. Similar Codebooks.
3. Shared Mental Model of the Communication Context
4. Experience encoding the message.
1. Poor Medium for Communicating Emotions
2. Reduces Politeness and respect
3. Poor Medium for Ambiguous, Complex, and Novel Situations
4. Contributes to Information Overload
- it makes life better and easier by connecting to a network
- influences facial gestures, voice intonation, physical distance, and even silence.
Choosing the Best Communication Channel
Social Influence:
team and organization norms about preferred communication channels
individual preferences for specific communication channels
symbolic meaning of the communication channels
channel or medium
two main types of channels:
1. verbal communication

2. nonverbal communication

-uses words and occurs through either spoken/written channels
-any part of communication that does not use words
-critical part of the communication model through which information is transmitted
-suggest that communication effectiveness depends on the ability of sender and receiver to efficiently and accurately encode and decode information.
encoding-decoding process is more effective when both parties are skilled and enjoy using the selected communication channel.
communication participants are able to encode and decode more accurately because they both have the same or similar meaning.
common understanding of the environment relating to the information
becoming more proficient at using the codebook of symbols to convey the message.
(ARPANET) Advance Research Projects Agency Network
- started in 1960's funds by the U.S Department of Defense
- 1969- ARPANET became a reality
- 1971 sent the first electronic mail message between different computers on a network.
-tends to be preferred medium for sending well-defined information for decision making

-it alters the flow of information within groups and throughout the organization

-reduces some face-to-face and telephone communication but increased communication with people further up the hierarchy.
-serve several functions : presenting the individual's identity, enabling conversations, sharing information, sensing the presence of others in the virtual space
-creative content and produced outside of professional routines and practices.
also known as information richness theory
Developed by Richard L. Draft and Robert H. Lengel
The medium's data-carrying capacity
Media Richness:
A communication channel has high richness when:
- able to convey multiple cues (such as both verbal and nonverbal information)
- allows timely feedback
-allows customize message
- permits complex symbols
(such as words and phrases with multiple meaning)
Factors that Overrides Media Richness
Ability to Multi-communicate
More varied proficiency levels
Social distractions of rich channels
> multi-tasking in communication- using two or more channels at the same time
> some people can "push" out more message in computer- mediated technology
> effect of status and other social factors reduce efficiency of rich channels
> is a huge source of communication noise that both sender and receiver might not have the same codebook.
> are specialized words and phrases for specific occupations or groups
> involves deleting or delaying negative information or using less harsh words so the message sound more favorable
Information Overload
> it refers to the difficulty a person can have understanding an issue and making decisions that can be caused by the presence of too much information
Information Processing Capacity
> the amount of information that people are able to process in a fixed unit of time
Cross-Cultural and Gender Communication
Gender Differences in Communication
Nonverbal differences across cultures
> it is a field of study that looks at how people differing to communicate across cultural backgrounds.
Increasing globalization and cultural diversity have brought more cross-cultural communication issues.
Nonverbal Communication
> represents another potential area for misunderstanding across cultures
Improving Interpersonal Communication
Three Communication Strategies:
Diageo and many other companies are improving communication by tearing down walls
Internet-Based Organizational Communication
Hard copy newsletters and magazines
Web-Based Sources of information
Direct Communication With Top Management
“ The best Fertilizer in any field is that of the farmer’s footsteps.”
Management By Walking Around(MBWA)
Communicating through the Grapevine
Organizational Grapevine
The grapevine is a communication system or process which is barely informal communication system.
It is comprised of gossip and rumor .
According to Prof. Keith Davis "Grapevine arises from social interaction, It is as fickle, dynamic and varied as people are. It is the exercise of their freedom of speech and is a natural, normal activity".
Grapevine Network
According to Prof. J. W. Newstrom and others,
"Grapevine has three main characteristics--
It is not controlled by management.
It is perceived by the most employees as being more believable and reliable.
It is largely used to serve the self-interest of those people withing it."
1. Flexibility: There is no formal control on grapevine. For this reason, It is more flexible communication system than any other ways of communication.
2. Lack of control: Actually, there is no managerial control over the grapevine communication system. It is grown by itself.

Features of grapevine :
3. Rapid communication: Grapevine communication system is more faster than other formal or informal channels of communication.
4. No record: We can't keep any documentary record  or evidence of grapevine communication system that can be shown or produced as future reference.
5. Used for self-interest: As grapevine communication system is produced by gossip and rumor, It is basically used for self-interest of the employees of an organization.
6. Popular among employees: This communication system is much popular among the employees than  other formal or informal channels.
7. Distortion: Distorting of real massage is one of the major features of grapevine communication system. In this communication process information passes rapidly man to man. That's why the information losses its originality.
8 Spontaneous: Grapevine is basically spontaneous. It passes rapidly and spontaneously from top to bottom of the organization. Here is no need to make any effort to make it successful
*Early research findings
Transmits information rapidly in all directions
Follows a cluster chain patterns
Transmits some degree of truth
*Changes due to internet
Email becoming the main grapevine medium
Social networks are now global
Public blogs and forums extends gossip to everyone

Fills in missing information from formal sources
Strengthens corporate culture
Relieves anxiety
Signals that problems exist
Distortions might escalate anxiety
Perceived lack of concern for employees when company information is slower than grapevine
Getting your message across
Active listening
Active Listening Process
-Postpone evaluation
-Avoid interruptions
-Maintain interest
-Organize Information
-Show Interest
-Clarify the message

dictionaries of symbols, language, gestures, ideas, and other tools used to convey information
- Developed by two graduates of Duke University
-allowed people to post information that could be retrieved by anyone else on the network, thus making it the first public computer mediated social network
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