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AP World History: 600 C.E.- 1450 C.E

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Transcript of AP World History: 600 C.E.- 1450 C.E

Time of war and conquest Europe:
Conflict between Western Mediteranean Christian Church of Rome and Christian Church of Constantinople (Greek roots); Great Schism (1054)

Crusades greatly affected racial ties between Christians and Muslims Islam Prophet Muhammad Five Pillars 1. Declaration of faith
2. Mandatory prayers
3. Almsgiving
4. Ramadon
5. Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca Social Roles Patriarchal
Rigid social movement
lived by Sharia or Law code
Umma (collective community)
ulema (scholar elite) (Dar al-Islam) Time Period 600 C.E.- 1450 C.E Bernardo Gonzalez Felicitas Ruiz
Valerie Gonzalez Ryunhee Kim
Mackenzie Greeley Period 1
May 5, 2011 Will Boerger RYUNHEE Indian Ocean Trade
Monsoon System
Summer (winds blow Southwest)
Winter (winds blow Northeast)
allowed mariners to sail safely to all parts of Indian Ocean Basin Trade Routes
maritime trade networks through the Indian Ocean linked not only the large classical societies of Eurasia and North Africa but also smaller societies in East Africa
establishment and maintenance of these trade routes was an expensive affair calling for substantial investment in military forces, construction, and bureaucracies to administer the commerce that passed over the routes
long-distance trade stimulated economic development within the Hellenistic realms themselves, bringing benefits to local economies throughout the empires.
Hellenistic rulers closely supervised foreign trade and levied taxes on it, there by deriving income even from foreign products Silk Roads
Trade Goods
silk-China; spices/ cloves/ nutmeg/ mace/ cardamom-Southeast Asia; ginger/ cinnamon-China; pepper/ sesame oil-India and Arabia; large, strong horses/ jade- Central Asia; glassware/ jewelry/ art/ decorative items/ perfumes/ bronze goods/ wool and linen textiles/ pottery/ iron tools/ olive oil/ wine/ gold/ silver bullion-Roman Empire
Mongols controlled and protected route Timeline/History of The Crusades: First: 1096-1099
Second: 1147-1149
Third: 1189-1192
Fourth: 1201-1204
Fifth: 1218-1221
Sixth: 1228-1229
Seventh: 1248-1254
Eighth: 1270 Also known together as the Holy Wars

Series of expeditions to take lands in
Palestine

These lands held religious significance
for both Christians and Muslims

Open hatred between Muslims and Christians
which can still be traced to even today
Demographic and Environmental Changes
Arabs:

-Spread of Islam : Muhammad spread the Islam; created the Five Pillars of Islam; Islamic law: the Sharia.

-Trade : Part of the Indian Ocean Trade; traded goods with China; Swahili Coast.

-Slavery : Captured African; forced them to bondage. Islam Developed in the 7th century
One of the later major religion (all of the other major religions formed in the B.C. era)
Praise Allah (Monotheistic)
Salvation is won through submission (Islam submission)
Submission attained through Five Pillars
Muslims (followers) read Qur'an
Jihad (the struggle) is the way to be a better Muslim Islamic Similarities with
Judaism and Christianity All three religions accept Abraham, Moses,
and Jesus as prophets
Muslims and Christians are equal to their god
All have religious sects
"People's of the Book"
Muslisms-more liberal on conversion Islamic Sects Two main islamic sects, the Shia (Shiite)
and the Sunni
Shia
-Ali (Mohammad's son-in-law) righful heir
Sunnis
-do not want hereditary succesion
-favored Abu Bakr as succecsor
Sufis were mystics who were good at conversion
-stressed strong relationship with Allah
-very tolerant Grew up in Mecca, where he was influenced by Judaism and Christianisty
Muhammad visited by angel Gabriel
told he was prophet of God (Allah)
His preaching caused problems with Meccan leaders
622 C.E. hijra to Medina (marks 1st day on Islamic calendar
Grew in popularity and worshipers at Medina
630 he returned to Mecca, where Islam flourished
Died unexpectedly in 632 Caliphates Abu Bakr takes over as caliph (head
of state) and empire reffered to as caliphate
Order of succesion: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman,
and Ali
Umayyad Dynasty
Abbasid Dynasty Umayyad Dynasty Arabic became official language
gold/silver became standard money
Jizya (head tax if not Muslim)
expanded to Nothern Africa and Spain (Iberian Peninsula)
caliphs eventually grew lazy (fat/luxurious) and lost power
Abu al-Abbas organizes rebellion against Umayyad because Sunni rulers were oppresive and Sunni favored
Aristocracy favored Arab elite
Conquered Syria, Egypt, and the Sasanid Empire Abbasid Dynasty Comes to power after Umayyad in 750
Most of the population were Arabs
Golden Age of Islam because Dynasty known for trading
High point w/ Harun al-Rashid
-reliable tax revenues
Education advances in: steel production for swords, medical and mathematic fields
administered from inherited land (did not conquer as much)
Did conquer Tunisia, Spain, Algeria, Morocco, and Sind
Battle of Talas River opens Islamic expansion to Turkis people
ends 1258 when defeated by Mongols qUESTIONS of periodization Description of Era: Crusades Religion influenced people's actions and everyday lives Diseases Religion Disease and disunity spread China grew in wealth and dominance Islam emerged and grew in dominance Organized empires emerged based on trade Emergence of Byzantium ROman empire collapse from internal issues from Germanic conquests In 476 C.E. Eastern half of Roman empire survives Constantine emerges as 1st emperor Byzantines preserve art and culture Hagia Sophia Frescoes and mosaics Reaches peak of empire under Justinian expanding empire with general Belisarius
Theodora (wife) was inquisistive and helpful
Justinian's code of laws Qur'an Judgement day People should share their goods with others
Muhammad only messenger to Arabs
Gender equality Allah is good
Allah judge men/women on their actions
Should worship Allah for his blessing Islamic Expansion Islamic communities expand
Caliphs (deputies) emerge
Dynasties conquer and cause Islam to expand to a larger area (dar al-Islam)
Conquered Byzantine (Syria and Palestine) and Persian empire
Conquered Byzantine Egypt and N. Africa
Ruled from India to central Asian steppe
Ruled east to west Africa and Iberia
Charles Martel (Frankish leader) hindered expansion In 633 A.D. In 640 A.D. Mongols:

-Bubonic plague: spraid by the trade route; 25 million in China, 1/3 of Europe.

-Trade: Brought wealth to merchants; made stations; paper money. Development of Early Civilizations
4000 BCE-1000BCE Early Agricultural and Technilogical Developments
8000 BCE- 3500 BCE Gender System in Civilizations Through 600-1450:
Islam
Under Allah's judgement, women and men were equal, but Islamic ideals reinforced male dominance

Women had no choice in the marriage, as they were the parents choice; it happened at an early age

Elite women werre given chances, as was the first women ruler, Razia Sultana

An example of male dominance is the enforcement of women to wear full body clothing niqab (veil) Religion and Disease
Buddhism in Central Asia and China and SE Asia
Hinduism in SE Asia
Christianity in the Mediterranean Basin and SW Asia
Manichaeism emerges in Med. Basin and Roman Empire and Mesopotamia and Sasanid Empire
Epidemic Disease spreads through Silk Roads(Black Death)
Trade Routes
went from Luoyang and Guangzhou (Chinese capitals) to the Middle East where then it traveled to Europe Trans-Saharan Trade
Trade Routes
stretched from Cairo(North Africa) to Senegal River(East Africa) and down to Sofala(South Africa) and maritime trade routes
Trade Goods
camels, gold, copper, ironware, cotton textiles, salt, grains, and carnelian beads, cloth, manufactured wares, etc..
Religion
spread Islam throughout Africa(mostly North and West Africa)
Mansa Musa made pilgramage to Mecca Economic Innovations
Tang & Song China
fast-ripening rice, new agricultural techniques(heavy iron plows), manure, extensive irrigation system
metallurgy, porcelain, gunpowder, printing, compass, paper money, banks
Swahili
controlled and taxed trade in jurisdiction
obtained gold, leopard skins, pottery, glass, and textiles
built mosques and public buildings
Ming China
Zheng He's expeditions
commercial expansion in Indian Ocean Basin Contacts Between Religions
Crusades-European response to Islam spreading
Crusades(Islam&Christianity)
Spread of Neo-Confucianism (in China) - mixture of Confucianism with some Buddhism
Schism in Christianity (when the east and the west churches divided into Roman
Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity; they divided over the issue of icons)
The Church was divided in 1054 over the issue of control of the churches and the use of icons. Two churches emerged: Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic. Impact of Mongol Empires
Created the largest land empire in the world
Spread traits from other cultures
Improved trade throughout Asia and eastern Europe
Paper money, banking, and letters of credit
Once areas were conquered a period of extended peace normally resulted Major Comparison: Compare European & Sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic World?
In the begining of this time period, the only contact between Europeans and Muslims was through trade and Greek philisophical, scientific, and medical writings. Throughout the seventh and eigth centuries, Arabs influenced sub-Saharan Africa politically, socially, and religiously. Because of political organization in states such as Ghana, Islam was easily adopted.Despite their conversion to Islam, most still practiced old traditions and religions. Beacause of Muslim invasions during the reconquista, religious conflicts intensified rivalries between Christian and Muslim states in the Iberian Penisula. The Christian victory of this reconquest lead to campaigns against Muslims also known as the Crusades. Pope Urban II launched the first crusade in 1095. He promised salvation to those who lost thier lives during these crusades. With no plans, weapons, ideas, or supplies, men and women set out to claim land from Muslims in Palestine, which resulted in disaster. These European crusades lead Muslims, Turks and Egyptians to put aside thier differences and fight against Christians. In 1187, they sealed the fate of the Christians in East Mediterranean. Cultural Impact of Islam Spread of new foods and industrial crops
A new industry: paper manufacture
Revived silk roads: used for adminstration and trade
Chinese Compass for maritime trade
rulers supported the arts, math and science
Introduced to West: zero, decimal, alegebra
calligraphy - writing (script)
"Arabesque" - intertwined flowers, plants
Mosques w/ domes and minarets
Gunpowder
Steel for swords
Improved astrolabe Islam and the cultural traditions of Persia, India, and Greece Persian influence on Islam
Ideas of kingship: benevolent, absolute
Indian influences
Adopted "Hindi numerals," (Arabic numerals)
Algebra and trigonometry
Greek influences
Muslims philosophers liked Plato and Aristotle African Civilizations:
Islamic Influences Arrived by Trans Saharan and sea lanes
Africans adopt Islam but retain culture
Appealing because-Muslims equal, and relations with Arabs
10th century, Ghana converts to Islam
Mali Empire-also converted to Islam
Mansa Musa-African emperor converted to Islam
Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca drew converts
City-state converts: Swahili, Kilwa, and Zimbabwe China
Women in China had very little power, as they were mainly dominated by males

An example of this would be: women were not allowed to raise their voice at their husband, women were to stay widowed if their husband died, and new born baby girls had to under go humiliating rituals

The only exception were to the female elites: women in the Emperor's home and military people Africa
Though powers in Africa were predominantly patriarchal, women had more oppurtunities than other women in other parts of the world

Women were mainly house workers and could have much say in the family as well as have a little power in the household

In their societies, women were less heard then men, but they could influence public affairs by showing virtue in their house hold World Economy
The world did have a network of systems, but it was limited to trade in Asia, Japan, Africa, and Europe, and with the introduction of China and Western Europe to trade brought new luxuries to the world, such as steel, silk, spices, horses, textiles, and building goods Silk Road was used to bring foreign goods to Europe, as well as introduce new technologies to Europe during the period of Mongol reign in China

As well as trade in the Indian Ocean and between the Swahili City States, which also had Trans-Sahara Trade, with items such as gold, ivory, slaves, and precious gems

Much trade flourished through Constantinople and in Mecca, leaving the exchange of cultures, opening the world to the different technologies and luxuries Europe
It was still a patriarchal gender system, with men soley controlling and power over their land

Women were like servants to the men, and still did house work and cared for the family

Elite women were in the family of the manor, they still had less power but had more leisure time to do what they pleased

Serfdom gave less power to all peasants and almost all power to the lord of the manor, who let the serfs use his land in return for their planting of crops China
Expansion of their influence into areas around them Vietnam, Japan, Korea, and Tibet

Promoted the spread of Buddhism in the early 600s, became national religion in Korea

The spread of Buddhism into Confucianism, making Neo-Confucianism Early Urban Society:
Entertainment: tea houses, social gathering areas, markets, etc.

Centralized city

Largely built on trade and commerce

Peasants held less freedom because of large land and money holders were in control of political and military power

Leads to the ideals of Capitalism because of the new wealth in trade in the merchant class classical Civilizations
1000BCE- 600CE umayyad Dyansty 661 -750CE Emerged after assassination of Ali
Solved succession problem Moved Capital from to Mecca Damascus! Elites were appointed as Governers
distributed AND within themselves Elites alienated themsleves
And
Lived too luxurious Rebellion brought empire to its end Sudanic States Ghana Mali songhia & Ghana 800-1100 C.E. of many Empires in Africa 1st Intro of Camels=Trade REv Land Of Economy Flurished Power Struggle with Almoravid Muslim Empire DECLINE: Mali 1100-1600C.E. 2nd EMpire of Africa Founded by sundiata Keita Japanese and European Feudalism Japan Europe Seppuku Shoguns Meiji Restoration Equal Field System Pledges- individual vows of oath Captial: Niani Depended on Niger River
For Trade Mansa Musa Distributed Gold to all of kingdom Took EPIC visits to MECCA & Would come back and build mosque Decline: Central Govt criples! Military pressure from outside forces Songhai 1340-1591 C.E. Capital: Gao Trade depened on Niger River Sunni Ali Small kingdom Largest most powerful Empire in AFRICA Tuned Empire from... Morocco invades Swahili 11th-15th Century Meaning Coasters Trading port cities Traded with Persia, India, China Each City-state ran its own Govt City States! Portugese Trade disrupted the old trade routes
made the Swahili commercial centers useless chinese Dynasties African Empires Tang Dynasty 618-907 C.E. Tang Taizong EST. After Sui Yangdi's Death 627-649 C.E. Capital: Chang'an Confucian Ruler Transportation and Communication quickened The Equal-Fields System Civil Service Exam Careless Rulers
Rebellion and revolt Decline: Song Dyansty 960-1279C.E. Song Taizu 960-976 C.E. More centralized Govt than other Dynasties provided Confucian edu. The Southern Song Dynasty fell in 1279 AD when the Mongols under Khublai Khan successfully invaded and conquered China.
The Mongols then established the Yuan Dynasty. Empire was splite by North and South Song Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 C.E. formed from the take down of The Yuan Dynasty(Mongols) Zhu Yuanzhang leader of rebellions agianst Yuan became 1st Emperor Zhu Di was Emperor Chengzu Height of Ming Dynasty From 1405 to 1433, Emperor Chengzu sent a eunuch named Zhenghe to lead Ming's fleets across the Indian Ocean. Vassels Lords Guilds Roman Catholic Christianity Moral Code Warriors Vassel System Neo-Confucianism Women have more rights Three field system Delhi Sultanate Northern India conversion
Afghan Turks
Sultans welcomed religion because Hindus polytheism not appealing
Disagreements with Hindus
Bakti Movement The Mongols and Islam Ottoman Empire United by Osman in 1300
Used muskets and cannons
Very lenient and accepting of religions
Mehmed the Conqueror-> opened Constantinople to Jews/Christians
Captured Mecca, Medina, Cairo, and Constantinople-> influential cities Great Muslim Empires of the Era Genghis Khan unites Mongols
Mongols spread religion through Jihad
religions spread along Silk Roads
Religion spread throughout conquered people
Golden Horde-Russia
Yuan Dynasty-China
Pax Mongolica with Kublai Khan
Mongols -> great conquerors, horrible administrators
Empire stretching from Persia to the North China Sea
Spread gunpowder
Fought in Crusades Impact Spread cultures, Islamic and Christian
Improved trade in Asia and East Europe
Made Silk road safe, b/c hectic during bubonic plague
-they also help spread epidemic
Conquered areas brought peace b/c rulers usually lenient (good example)
Pax Mongolica
Papper money, letters of credit Delhi Sultanate * Mamluk dynasty (1206-1290)

* The Khilji dynasty (1290–1320)

* The Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1413)

* The Sayyid dynasty (1414–51)

* The Lodi dynasty (1451–1526) franks Mosque of Jenne
Turks:

-Origin : Turks were originally Indo-Europeans who migrated into the Middle East.

-Trade : Gained control of trade on the Mediterranean after controling many different societies; got responsible for Europe's growing interest and involvement in long-distance trade.

-Invasion : Invaded Byzantine Empire, Europe, Constantinople, India (introduced Islam to India), and other more. Aztecs:

-Tradition : Strong military tradition; ruled by absolute power.

-Economy : agricultural based; cacao beans as currency.

-Religion : priestly class; sacrifice ritual; bloodletting and human sacrifice. Vikings:

-Effects on Europe: conquered most of coastal Europe; development of Feudalism; established trade routes.

-Culture: Polytheistic religion; agriculture based economy; worrior state.

-Scandinavia (Nordic people): targets on monasteries; maneuverable boats; established communities in Scotland, France, Eastern Europe . Impact of migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas Consequences of plague pandemics By the trade the bubonic plague spread through Eurasia, the Mongol.
During the 1330s plague erupted in southwestern China, then spread throughout China and central Asia, and by the late 1340s it had reached southwest Asia and Europe, it became known as the Black Death.
Bubonic plague killed many people and it exposed population.
Disrupted economies and societies throughout much of Eurasia and north Africa.
The disease caused massive labor shortages, which in turn generated social unrest.
The plague infectes rodents and it spread to others.
In the early fourteenth century, Mongol military campaigns helped spread plague from Yunnan to China's interior; killed 90 percent of the population in Hebei.
During the 1340s Mongols, merchants, and other travelers helped to spread the disease along the trade routes to China. Growth and role of cities Many cities became prominent due to trade,
like in Canton, Samarkand, Timbuktu, Cairo, and Venice.
State building recovered in Western Europe.
The Renaissance recovered in Western Europe.
Education became important to people.
Cultural diffusion
Improved agricultural techniques in Europe.
New tools andtechnologies. (the horseshoe and the horse collar)
New Crops (hard durumwheat, rice, spinach,
artichokes, eggplant, lemons, limes,oranges, and melon. Islam Christianity Judaism La Convivencia- the Co-Existence 711 to 1492 C.E. Spain: this was a Period in Spanish history where Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived in peace with eachother. Jews attempted to over­throw Abu Muslim in 747 C.E. In 829-31, the Egyptian Christians of the Nile delta rebelled against the Muslim authorities because of excessive taxation and religious persecution. This rebelion turned out to be a faliure. Yazid II (720-724) was an Umayyad Caliph that was known for ordering the destruction of Christian images within his controled territory.
The Crusades: war waged by Christian Europe agianst Muslim Middle East to restore christian control over Jerusalem
1095-1291C.E. Lasted 200 years 1066 Granada massacre A Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, assassinated the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred many of the Jewish population of the city. Early signs of Anti-semitism 1099 AD - When the Crusaders invaded they slaughtered Jews. The Jews were expelled from the city under “Christian” rule. Had to pay Jizya or a tax for being non-Muslim when under Muslim rule. Continuities Breaks use of the Silk Road patriarchal society Population increase Migrations trade and Cultural Exchange Wars
Buddhism
Hinduism
Christianity
Islam Religions improvments in Technology Empires Fiefs Civil Service Examinations Tang & Song continue use Based Confucian values Meritocracy-earned not inherited System survied change of ruling Cultural Differences
Islam is on the rise, as well as the influence of Christianity on the people in Europe, bringing a clash between these beliefs (1200s)

Set areas were then told to have an "official" religion, making less tolerence for other religions, and continuing conflict. With trade, there was an exchange of religions like Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity all throughout theh Silk Road

Such as the disagreement between Pagans and Christians, which has been continued since the 100s CE, Protestant churches split to fulfill the needs of its own people Hindu Symbol Money System
In China they invented Flying Cash, which were letters of credit

Paper Money became used with its introduction in China and then commonly used by the Mongols near the year 1000, although they also used coins

Serfdom was common use for money system in Medevil Times which was for feudalism Islam
With the introduction to Bhagavad Gita and his Bhakti movement in the 12 century, people in India are unified by the connection between Hinduism and Islam

Hindus and Delhi Sultanate, which forced Islam, were on less then friendly terms, caused by the disagreement in cultural views

Islamic states enforced beliefs, monothiestic and male dominance, while Hindus believe in Polytheism and the importance of fertility Christians did not like Jews because Jews managed banking and Loans.
would make money off of Christians.
Caused social tension Emperor Wahli (1572-1620) Decline: neglecting his duties
didn't care about politics
Manchurian tribal Leaders
saw insablity and took advantage Grew and reached its peak under the reign of Muhammad ibn Tughlu
Tughlaq Dynasty
1300-1351 C.E. based their laws on the Quran and Sharia (way or law)
permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their religion only if they paid jizya (head tax) Decline: Weak: power struggle
Babur won the First battle of Panipat
Est.Mughal dynasty Diverse Interpretaions Trade Interregional Networks and Contacts Elites alienated themsleves
And
Lived too luxurious
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