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A closer look at support
Transcript of A closer look at support
Traditional rhetorical criticism
What is Argumentation?
Argumentation is the communicative process of advancing, supporting, criticizing, and modifying claims so that appropriate decision makers, defined by relevant spheres, may grant or deny adherence. (Rieke and Sillars Argumentation and Critical Decision Making)
defines argument as a social-interactive process, because people’s decisions are the products of argumentation
collections of people in the process of interacting upon and making critical decisions
Multiple overlapping spheres
Church group, family, political party, UNT, etc.
Levels of Spheres- Personal, Technical, Public
Argument1 and Argument2
Argument1- a claim, or statement made by an advocate. Argument as Product.
Argument2-A dialogic exchange between two or more people, i.e. having an argument. Argument as Process
Argument1 and Argument2
Argument0 (?)-the psychological process of deciding inside one’s own head. Intrapersonal argument.
The Academic division of Rhetoric
Is the data consistent with other data from the same source?
Is the data consistent with other data from unrelated sources?
Do the data support the conclusion
they are meant to support?
There is more to support than evidence
Values in Argumentation
Needs and Values
Positive vs. Negative
Stated vs. Implied
Terminal vs. Instrumental
Abstract vs. Concrete
“Equal Pay for Equal Work”
Stated value of Equality
Implied-”You should study more”Value of learning is not stated
Positive Values- the desirable
Freedom, liberty, self-respect
Negative Values-the undesirable-Stealing, distrust, falsity, inattention, indecision
Terminal Values-the ends
Security, equality, happiness, harmony, love, pleasure, salvation, wisdom
Instrumental Values- the meansAmbition, capability, helpfulness, self-control, politeness, independence, imagination, hard work
Abstract values are common- justice, truth, freedom
objects serve as values for a group-
Concrete values- the flag, the pope, the Star of David, the President
Support and Spheres
Support is Sphere Dependent
Consider the legal sphere-
Hearsay evidence is discounted,
Hearsay evidence rules the day
negative evidence is essential-
the absence of evidence ,
the Null hypothesis
1. Dictate value of certain
kinds of evidence
2. Determine the standards
for expert status
3. Allow or prohibit certain
values in argument
What about this?
Rhetoric and Social Power
If rhetoric is the study of influence, influence occurs not only in public address, but also in everyday practices.
Editorial Analysis Speech
Use the terms of ANALYSIS in speech:
Claims (F V P)
Evidence (Examples, Statistics, Testimony)
Values (Pos/Neg, Term/Instr, etc.)
Doing the Introduction
1. Need an Attention Getter (Do not just start in your topic- tell people why they should listent)
Rhetorical Questions (Not a poll)
2.State your Thesis (not thesis of editorial) (Today I am going to talk about the NYT editorial from Sept. 11 2014)
3. Preview your main parts
Editorial Speech- Example
A. Snappy attention getter -According to an article in a British newspaper called the Guardian on June 5, 2013, “The National Security Agency is currently collecting the telephone records of millions of US customers of Verizon...under a top secret court order issued in April. The order...requires Verizon on an ‘ongoing, daily basis’ to give the NSA information on all telephone calls both within the US and between the US and other countries. Could you be one of the millions whose telephone activity is being tracked?
B. The editorial I chose to analyze is organized with general conclusions appearing towards the beginning of each paragraph, followed by additional support to back up each argument.
C. I will discuss 1. the main claim 2. the first sub-claim 3. the second sub-claim
4. the third sub-claim.
Editorial Speech- Body
II. Main claim
A. The main claim addresses the primary issue by stating, “The question is whether the security goals can be achieved by less-intrusive or sweeping means, without trampling on democratic freedoms and basic rights.”
B. It appears in the middle of the third paragraph and is a claim of value because it uses words expressing opinion or belief, like “less-intrusive” and emotionally charged phrases like “trampling on democratic freedoms”.
C. The values in this statement are abstract; the author expresses the importance of values including the right to privacy, freedom, and the Constitutional idea of inalienable rights.
D. Let’s transition into examining the three sub-claims.
III. First sub-claim
A. The first sub-claim addresses the relationship between the people of a democracy and their government; it states that “the surreptitious collection of metadata...fundamentally alters [this] relationship”.
B. This is a claim of fact as it observes an existing condition -- the condition of the relationship between a people and her government.
C. This sub-claim is supported by an additional claim that the government can use personal data to discover intimate details about a person’s lifestyle and beliefs.
D. Lastly, there is the support of expert testimony from a professor at George Washington State University Law School named Daniel Solove who compares the National Security Agency’s program to a Seurat painting in which each tiny dot -- though it may seem small or unimportant -- is, in fact, an important part of the whole picture.
E. This conflict was addressed in a recent lawsuit. Let’s explore that development.
Editorial Speech Body
A. This editorial had many sub-claims and support demonstrating the author’s values and beliefs about democracy.
B. I have discussed the main claim as well as the first, second, and third sub-
claims which support the editorial board’s beliefs about this issue.
C. Hopefully, the publication of articles like these will bring this important issue to America’s attention and our citizens will take action to protect their democratic rights for themselves and future generations.
A Closer Look at support
1. Audience centered theory of argument.
2. Values as a form of support
2. Editorial analysis speech in detail
What type of phone do you use?
One value can be terminal, positive, stated, and abstract all at the same time.
The values in the argument, "Happy wife, happy life" are
"The Early Bird gets the worm" is an example of
Step 1. Find a public address event (a city council meeting, a campaign rally, a town hall with an elected official, a public protest, or even a legislative assembly)
Step 2. Attend
Step 3. 1 page summary of event
A. Describe the event (Who, what where why)
B. Was is a good or bad example of advocacy?
c. Apply Aristotle (was it rhetorical?how? was it forensic, epideictic or deliberative? what type of appeals were used?)
Step 4. Turn it in (week 6), deadline October 2.