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Oceanography

Unit 4
by

David Barrett

on 10 March 2016

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Transcript of Oceanography

DRQ
Protective Structures: man-made temporary solutions
Beach Nourishment: man-made temporary solutions.
Solutions cost LOTS of money, are only temporary and could cause further damage to local ecosystems than natural processes.
Methods to Stabilize the Shore From Excessive Erosion
Wind
All fluids, liquids, air and water deflect to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere, due to Earth’s rotation.
Wave Diagram:
The moon and the sun (to a lesser extent)
Diagram Tides:
DRQ’s: Answers
What factors influence photosynthetic productivity?
Availability of nutrients and amount of solar radiation.
Why is productivity in tropical regions limited?
Lack of nutrients.
What are trophic levels and how is the energy transferred between these levels?
Feeding stages. Energy is transferred very inefficiently, as little as 2%.
What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?
A food chain passes energy along a single path whereas in a food web many organisms interact and depend on each other for energy.
What is a producer?
Algae, plants and bacteria that make food available to the consumers.
A consumer? Sharks and whales that consume the energy made available from the producers.
DRQ’s (answers)
What factors influence photosynthetic productivity?
Why is productivity in tropical regions limited?
What are trophic levels and how is the energy transferred between these levels?
What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?
What is a producer? A consumer?
DRQ’s
Movements of water that flow horizontally in the upper part of the ocean?
Surface currents
What is responsible for deflecting ocean water?
The Coriolis Effect
Rising cold, nutrient-rich water?
Upwellings
Review Questions
Quiz Today
What factors influence photosynthetic productivity?
Availability of nutrients and amount of solar radiation.
Why is productivity in tropical regions limited?
Lack of nutrients.
What are trophic levels and how is the energy transferred between these levels?
Feeding stages. Energy is transferred very inefficiently, as little as 2%.
What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?
A food chain passes energy along a single path whereas in a food web many organisms interact and depend on each other for energy.
What is a producer?
Algae, plants and bacteria that make food available to the consumers.
A consumer? Sharks and whales that consume the energy made available from the producers.
DRQ’s (answers)
What factors influence photosynthetic productivity?
Why is productivity in tropical regions limited?
What are trophic levels and how is the energy transferred between these levels?
What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?
What is a producer? A consumer?
DRQ’s
“Drifters”or “Floaters”?
Plankton (Phytoplankton & Zooplankton)
“Swimmers”?
Nekton
“Bottom Dwellers”?
Benthos
3 ways that define life zones?
Sunlight, Distance from shore & Water Depth
Review Questions
#____: Describe in 2 sentences what you learned from the lab where you experimented only with changing it’s salinity. (Fresh Water, Bay, Hawaii (ocean), and Red Sea (arid region)

#____: Describe in 3 sentences what you learned from the lab where you used the cold blue water, the salty red water and the warm green water.
Daily Review Questions (DRQ’s)
You will perform 2 labs today taking approximately 30 minutes each.
Please take out 1 sheet of notebook paper and label the front side with your name, date and period. The label it “Salinity and Density Lab”.
Turn that piece of paper over and label it “Salinity, Temperature and Density Lab”.
Find your lab seat and listen carefully for further instruction 
Today’s Activity: Salinity and Temperature vs. Density
What is salinity?
Where do the salts come from?
What are processes that:
Decrease Salinity
Increase Salinity
How does water temperature affect the density?
How does salinity affect the density of the water?
DRQ’s
As you travel from the equator to the poles, what happens to the surface temperatures?
It decreases
What is the highest density water in the world?
Cold water with high density
Ocean water layers into zones according to what????
Density
Review Questions
Water Temperature vs Density
What are 3 technologies used to map the topography of the ocean floor?
What are the major differences between them?
What are the 4 major ocean basins (in order from deepest to most shallow)?
What are the 3 parts of each ocean basin?
In which region (part) will you find:
Earth’s deepest point
Earth’s longest structure
Mineral deposits
Non-renewable resources
Earth’s most level places
DRQ’S
What are the 3 major parts of all ocean basins?
Continental Margin, Ocean Basin Floor and Mid-Ocean Ridge
What type of plate boundary will form the mid-ocean ridge?
Divergent
Review Questions
How much of the earth’s surface is land?
29-30%
Which is the largest and deepest ocean?
Pacific
3 methods used to study the ocean floor?
Sonar, Satellites and Submersibles
Most level places on earth?
Abyssal Plains
Review Questions
Chapter 14, 15 & 16:
The Ocean Floor, Ocean Water and Ocean Life and The Dynamic Ocean
What is oceanography?
A science that draws on the methods and knowledge of geology, chemistry, physics and biology to study all aspects of the world ocean.
What does an oceanographer study?
The composition and movements of seawater, as well as coastal processes, seafloor topography and marine life.
When mapping the elevation of land or ocean what types of maps could be used?
Topographic maps.
DRQ’s (answers)
What is oceanography?
What does an oceanographer study?
When mapping the elevation of land or ocean what types of maps could be used?
DRQ’s
Protective Structures:
Groins: built at right angles to the beach to trap sand. Maintains beaches that are losing sand.
Breakwater: built parallel to shoreline. Protects boats from the force of breaking waves.
Seawall: built parallel to shoreline. Shields the coast and defends property from force of breaking waves.
Protective Structures:
Form because of erosional processes of waves.
Erosion causes sediment to be transported and deposited in new areas.
For example: Wave-cut Cliffs, Platforms, Sea Arches and Sea Stacks.
Erosional Features
Bending of waves; which changes how the wave will hit the shore.
Waves usually approach the shore at a slight angle but when it reaches the shallow water, the crests bend and line up parallel to the shore.
Wave Refraction
Wave energy is consistent but will dramatically increase during storms.
The increased force and energy of the wave will greatly increase the erosion rate!
Wave Action
Shorelines
Constantly eroding, transporting and depositing sediments!
Many shoreline features can result...
Beach: the accumulation of sediment found along the shore of a lake or ocean.
Sediments: whatever minerals and materials are locally available.
Biological: shell fragments & organisms
Shorelines
List the reasons why sediments move along the shoreline.
Explain how bending the waves affects the shoreline.
Describe erosional and depositional shoreline features.
List structures used to protect shorelines.
Today’s Objectives
What makes surface waters move?
Describe the Coriolis Effect and the deflection in each hemisphere.
Draw a wave and label:
Wave Height
Wave Length
Crest
Trough

Which 2 bodies in space control the Earth’s tides?
Draw a spring tide and a neap tide.
DRQ’s
Where do waves get their energy?
Wind
What happens to water when it gets too shallow?
Crashing waves
Greatest tidal range: spring or neap?
Spring
Review Questions
Tidal range – height difference between high and low tide
Spring tide – greatest tidal range; moon and Sun work together to pull water in the same direction
Neap tide – smallest tidal range; moon and Sun work against each other to pull water in opposite directions
When a wave moves through the ocean, water particles move in circle. This is seen to a depth of ½ the wavelength.
When water is too shallow (less than ½ the wavelength), the bottom of the wave begins to drag causing waves to pile up and fall forward
Wave Motion & Breaking
Upwelling – rising of cold, nutrient rich water from the deep ocean to the surface
Many organisms depend on upwellings for survival
Coriolis Effect – deflection of currents off course due to Earth’s rotation
Northern Hemisphere – deflects right
Southern Hemisphere – deflects left
Currents from low-latitude areas bring heat to colder latitudes
Currents from higher-latitudes moderate temperatures in low-latitude areas
Gyres – huge circular-moving current systems
Ocean Currents – masses of ocean water that move from one place to another




Surface Currents – movements of water that flow horizontally in the upper part of the ocean
Develop from friction b/n the ocean and the winds
Surface Circulation
Purpose: To compare and contrast food webs vs. chains. To examine how various organisms fit into chains and webs. And to understand the energy transfer from one tropic level to the next.
Each student will quietly read the instruction sheet and get your printed food webs and chains ready to take to lab.
Materials: Food webs and chains. Giant piece of paper. Markers. Glue stick. Scissors
Directions: In teams of 4, you will cut and combine all of your organisms into one GIANT food web (or 2 if you have land and marine organisms). Page 436 Figure 16 may be helpful!
Then each student will answer the lab questions on a separate piece of notebook paper and turn in.
Have fun 
Food Web Activity
2 Processes of Primary Productivity?
Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis
What 2 factors does productivity depend upon?
Nutrients and Sunlight
What word do we use to describe the transfer of energy between trophic level?
Inefficient
Why do animals who feed through a food web have a greater chance of survival?
There are alternative food sources
Review Questions
Food webs – a complex series of feeding relationships with many organisms interacting and depending on each other.
Animals that feed through a food web are more likely to survive. They have alternative foods to eat should one of their food sources diminish or disappear.
Food chain – sequence of organisms through which energy is transferred, starting with the primary producer
Food Chains and Food Webs
Transfer efficiency – the transfer of energy between trophic levels is very inefficient

For 500,000 units of energy from the sun . . .
Level 1 ------------ Level 2 --------------- Level 3 -------------- Level 4 ------------ Level 5
Phytoplankton Zooplankton Small fish Big fish Humans
10,000 units 1000 units 100 units 10 units 1 unit
P is limited by available sunlight and nutrient supply and changes drastically based on time of year
Winter – P is low b/c limited sunlight even though nutrient levels are high
Spring – P is high b/c more sunlight available. Nutrients are the limiting factor
Summer – P is low b/c limited nutrients are available even though sunlight is plentiful
Fall – P is higher than summer & winter, but not as high as spring. More nutrients available, but P is limited by decreasing sunlight
Productivity in Temperate Oceans
Productivity (P) and total plankton biomass peaks from June to Oct due to continuous sunlight & nutrient-rich water
Low the rest of the year due to low/no sunlight
Productivity in Polar Oceans
Primary productivity – production of organic compounds from inorganic substances through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.
Oceanic Productivity
NOTE: this diagram has a large amount of vertical exaggeration
(slopes look MUCH steeper than they really are).
Marine Life Zones – three ways to define life zones:
Based on availability of sunlight
Distance from shore
Water depth
Differentiate between phytoplankton, zooplankton and nekton.
List the factors used to divide the ocean into marine zones.
List the factors that influence a region’s photosynthetic productivity.
Describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another.
Compare and contrast food webs and food chains.
Today’s Objectives
What is salinity?
The total amount of solid material dissolved in water.
Where do the salts come from?
Chemical weathering of rocks, earth’s interior through volcanoes and comets??
What are processes that:
Decrease salinity: precipitation, runoff from land, icebergs melting, sea ice melting.
Increase salinity: evaporation and formation of sea ice
How does water temperature affect the density?
Colder water is more dense.
How does salinity affect the density of the water?
Higher salinity water is more dense
DRQ’s (answers)
What are 4 resources obtained from the ocean floor?
Oil, Natural Gas, Gas Hydrates & Salts
What is the average salinity of seawater?
3.5%
What are some processes that decrease salinity?
Precipitation, Runoff, Melting Icebergs & Melting Sea Ice
Review Questions
Surface Zone – water temperatures are warmest.
Mixed Zone – where water is mixed by waves. This zone extends to about 300m.
Transition Zone – temperature falls abruptly with depth.
Deep Zone – sunlight never reaches this zone. Water temperature is just a few degrees above freezing.
Ocean Layering
Salinity –high salinity water is denser and will sink; mostly affects polar waters where temperatures are low and remain fairly constant.

Cold water with high salinity is some of the highest density water in the world.
Density is the mass per unit volume
Temperature – colder water is denser and will sink.
Ocean Density Variation

Salinity - the total amount of solid material dissolved in water.
The amount of material dissolved in seawater is so small, salinity is expressed in parts per thousand ‰.
The average salinity is 3.5% or 35 ‰.
Most of the salt in seawater is sodium chloride.
Salinity
Identify the units used to express the salinity of ocean water.
List the sources of salt in ocean water.
Recognize factors that affect the density of ocean water.
Today’s Objectives
What are 3 technologies used to map the topography of the ocean floor?
Sonar, Satellites and Submersibles
What are the major differences between them?
Sonar measures the ocean floor directly. Satellites measure the surface water (ocean floor indirectly). Submersibles gather data directly from the ocean floor.
What are the 4 major ocean basins (in order from deepest to most shallow)?
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Arctic.
What are the 3 parts of each ocean basin?
Continental margin, ocean basin floor and mid-ocean ridge.
In which region (part) will you find:
a) Earth’s deepest point (Ocean Basin Floor- Deep Ocean Trenches….Mariana)
b) Earth’s longest structure (Mid-Ocean Ridge)
c) Mineral deposits (Continental Margin-Continental Shelf and Mid-Ocean Ridges-Hydrothermal Vents)
d) Non-renewable resources (Continental Margin-Continental Shelf)
e) Earth’s most level places (Ocean Basin Floor-Abyssal Plains)
DRQ’s (answers)
Fold 1 piece of copy paper into 3 sections.
Label each:
Continental Margin
Ocean Basin Floor
Mid-Ocean Ridge
Diagram each and Define all parts
Pages 259,263, & 401-402 may be helpful
You may add color to your diagrams only if you have completed the rest of the assignment.
Diagram and Define:
3 Parts of an Ocean Basin
Abyssal Plains – these are deep and extremely flat—most level places on Earth

Seamount – a submerged volcano which has not broken the surface of the ocean
Pacific Ocean – largest ocean & deepest ocean
Atlantic Ocean – about half the size of the Pacific & not quite as deep
Indian Ocean – slightly smaller than the Atlantic & same average depth as Atlantic
Arctic Ocean - 7% the size of the Pacific & ¼ as deep as other oceans
4 Main Ocean Basins
Nearly 71 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by the global ocean




Oceanography —a science that draws on the methods and knowledge of geology, chemistry, physics and biology to study all aspects of the world ocean.
FYI:
Formed when sediment is deposited in new areas.
For example: Spits, Bars, Tombolos and Barrier Islands (narrow sandbars)
Depositional Features
Most waves still reach the shore at a slight angle.
These waves produce currents within the surf zone.
They flow parallel to the shore and move LOTS of sediment along the shore, called longshore currents!
Longshore Transport
Wave Refraction
Beach Deposits: dispersed wave energy=deposition of sediment = beaches!
Headlands: concentrated wave energy = erosion!
Sawing and grinding action of rock fragments in the water.
Causes erosion.
Evidence is the smooth, rounded stones and pebbles along the shore.
Wave Abrasion
Waves get their energy from the wind.
Characteristics:
Wave height – vertical distance from crest to trough
Wavelength – distance from crest to crest or trough to trough
Wave period – time it takes for a full wavelength to pass a fixed point
Waves
Explain how surface currents develop.
Describe how ocean currents affect climate.
State the importance of upwelling.
Describe the formation of density currents.
Describe how ocean waves get their energy and how it moves through a wave.
State 3 factors that determine the characteristics of a wave.
Explain forces that produce tides.
Today’s Objectives
Producers make food available to the consuming animals of the ocean.
Main ocean producers – bacteria, plants, marine algae and bacteria-like organisms
Energy passes from one feeding group to the next
Trophic levels – feeding levels
Only 10% of the energy taken in at any level is passed on to the next because energy is consumed and lost at each level.
Oceanic Feeding Relationships
Nekton – all marine animals capable of moving independently of the ocean currents by swimming; squid, adult fish, marine mammals, marine reptiles.
Purpose: Compare densities of two sizes of the same substance (3 Musketeer Bars  )
Materials: (per group of 2)
Ruler (to measure length, width and height)
Coffee Filter (to serve as a clean surface for your candy bar……you must take it’s mass!!!)
Triple Beam Balance
3 Musketeer Bars (1 Fun-Sized and 1 Miniature)
Collect data using the data table and answer the concluding questions!
You may NOT eat your experiment until I have checked your density values!
Today’s Activity: Candy Bar Density
Ocean surface water temperature varies with the amount of solar radiation received; warmer at the equator, colder at the poles
Surface waters are warmed by the sun. They generally have higher temperatures than deep water, however, this is also dependent on latitude.
Ocean Temperature Variation
Current Processes:
Decrease salinity – precipitation, runoff from land, icebergs melting, and sea ice melting.
Increase salinity – evaporation and formation of sea ice
Sources of Salt
Chemical weathering of rocks.
Earth’s interior via volcanic eruptions
Comets???
Evaporative salts – in areas where seawater has evaporated, salt can be harvested.
About 30% of Earth’s surface
Deep Ocean Trenches – found in area of plate subduction
The Mariana Trench is 11,002 m deep. (~6.84 miles)
Ocean Basin Floor
Continental Margins – this is the transition area between a continent and the adjacent ocean basin floor.
Continental Shelf – gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline; oil, natural gas, and mineral deposits are found here.
Continental Slope – steeper than the shelf, but not as wide. Marks the boundary between continental and oceanic crust.
Submarine Canyons cut into the continental slope.
Continental Rise – a more gradual incline to slope in regions with no trench
Continental Margin
Studied 3 ways:
Sonar —sound navigation and ranging; electronic depth sounding equipment; sound waves bounce off ocean floor.
Satellites – measure the shape and elevation of the ocean surface from space
Submersibles –collects data about areas of the ocean previously unreachable by humans; use video and photos record previously unknown creatures
Bathymetry —measuring ocean depths and charting ocean topography
Ocean topography is as diverse as that of the continents
Mapping the Ocean floor
Explain Earth’s major ocean basins
Describe the topography of the ocean floor and compare it to land.
Identify and describe 3 technologies used to study the ocean floor.
Diagram and describe the formation of 3 main regions of the ocean floor.
Today’s Objective
The addition of large quantities of sand to the beach system.
Can be very expensive and cause detrimental effects to local marine life.
Eventually, the processes that removed the sand in the first place will eventually wash it away again!
Beach Nourishment
Tides – daily changes in the elevation of the surface of the ocean
Are a result of the gravitational pull of the moon and to a lesser extent the Sun
Earth’s rotation under the tidal bulge produces 2 high and 2 low tides each day
Tides
Lots of sunlight; should have high P but does not
P is low due to lack of nutrients—they are considered biological deserts
Productivity in Tropical Oceans
Photosynthesis – use of light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose
Influenced by amount of nutrients available and solar radiation










Chemosynthesis – certain microorganisms
can create organic molecules from
inorganic nutrients using
chemical energy.
Exist along the mid-ocean ridges
Minerals form where hot water comes into contact with cold ocean water –looks like smoke
Extreme environment due to heat (water temperatures are near boiling!)
Hundreds of new species have been found since 1977
Hydrothermal Vents
Brittle stars
Benthos: these are organisms living on the ocean bottom
Oil and natural gas are the main energy products currently being obtained from the ocean floor.
Gas hydrates – compact chemical structures made of water and natural gas.
Occur in higher quantities than all the world’s coal, oil and natural gas combined.
Energy Resources
Found near the center of most ocean basins
Site of seafloor spreading
(divergent plate boundaries)
Hydrothermal vents – form alongside mid-ocean ridges; mineral deposits of sulfur, iron, copper, & zinc
Mid-Ocean Ridge
Ocean basins have 3 main parts:
Continental Margin


Ocean Basin Floor


Mid-Ocean Ridge
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton, diatoms
Plankton – consists of algae animals and bacteria that drift with ocean currents
Phytoplankton – plankton that can photosynthesize
Zooplankton – include larval stages of many marine organisms (lobsters, fish, sea stars, crabs).
The Diversity of Ocean Life
Name three examples how humans affect the hydrosphere.
How does velocity affect erosion in rivers?
which size sediments will be deposited first? which ones will be deposited last?
Name 3 things you already know about our oceans.
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