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The Scale of the Universe
Transcript of The Scale of the Universe
10 = 0.000000001
10 = 0.00001 m
Nanometer (nm) (Size)
10 = 1 meter
Meter (m) (Size)
10 = 1,000,000 m
Megameter (Mm) (Size)
12,700 km | 1.27 x 10 meters
Earth is the planet we live on. It is the most unique planet in our solar system as it is the only planet where life exists, inhabiting 7 billion people. The surface is made up of 70% water and 30% land.
10 = 1,000,000,000 m
Gigameter (Gm) Size
10 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 m
Zettameter (Zm) (Size)
Plank Length (ℓP) (Size)
| 20cm, 0.2m
Football was originally played in England!
The oldest football was discovered in Scotland
and it was made of leather made from a pigs bladder! Gross.
| 175cm, 1.75m
If you can read this, you are most likely to be a human or an incredibly smart computer. With the population of humans surpassing 7 billion, even if you could meet a person every second, it'd still take 200 years to meet everyone on the planet!
Hippos are the 3rd largest mammals living on land. They can live up to 50 years old in rivers and swamps in Africa. Although they may look like non harmful animals, they are actually extremely aggressive and often dangerous! So watch out!
The London bus is one of London’s most principle icons and is used to transport people around big cities. The Double Decker has been around since 1840s and they were initially horse drawn but became motorised in 1920s.
Tyrannosaurus Rex is believed to have lived in the area that we now call North America. The largest and most deadly of dinosaurs had a skull size of over 1.5m and teeth as long as your 30cm ruler! As well as being terrifyingly big, scientists estimate that they could have had running speeds of around 43mph!
The largest creatures on Earth today, the Blue whale lives for around 80-90 years and they live in any parts of the sea in the world! Their tongues weigh the same as an elephant and their heart weight the same as a car which explains why they form close attachments to other whales when swimming in a pack.
10 = 0.00000000000000000000000000000000001m
The coliseum once held inhuman games fighting roman soldiers and animals for around 50,000 spectators to sit and watch, these would last for days. The damage that you see today was the result of an earthquake in 847AD and 1231AD and rain continues to corrode the walls of the coliseum.
Space shuttles by NASA were majestic in appearance and advanced in possibilities
to allow mankind to explore space. They are probably, the most complex machines
designed by mankind and they offer a lot of information for us to analyse and helps us see
the universe that we are. Due the heat they experience, an average shuttle will have 30,000 tiles that are essentially made of just sand to protect the shuttle from extremely high temperatures.
Over 70,000 tons of concrete was used to build this bridge in 1886. It now provides a connection to the north and south of the London banks and is used by 40,000 londoners and tourists daily!
British Airways Boeing 777-330
This plane can fly up to 300 passengers towards North America and Asia. It is very quiet considering the fact that it travels up to 950km/h!
What's the observable universe?
The observable universe is everything we can see from Earth. Everything we can see is a result of the light that's travelled from distant objects to our telescopes. Light from very distant galaxies may not have had time to reach Earth yet which is why our observable universe will increase over time and not as a result of our technological advances in telescopes. For example, an image of Mars is actually what Mars looked like 30 minutes ago because of the time it takes for light to travel to Earth!
Sphinx | 75m
Sphinx statues were built to guard the tombs and temples. The Great Sphinx was built so that it faced the sunrise and in its prime times, it would have been painted with bright colours.
Currently 2000 years old, it is certainly the tallest one known to humans. In 2006, it’s largest branch fell off. This branch had a diameter of around 2 metres and was definitely larger than the average tree trunk!
The Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty is a statue to
represent peace. The seven rays on her crown represent the 7 continents in the world. It had to be shipped in 350 different pieces before it could be built in Liberty Island.
Saturn V was the largest launch vehicle,
launching Apollo 11 in 1969! It weighs
around 3000 tons and consumed around 15 tons of fuel per second! The launch was so powerful that spectators had to stand at least 3 miles away from the launch pad!
The London Eye
The London Eye is the tallest Ferris wheel in Europe! It is visited by 3.5 million people a year and has 32 capsules on the wheel numbered 1-33 because the number 13 was left out for good luck.
Britain is home to three of the
biggest football stadiums in the world:
Wembley in London, Hampden Park
in Glasgow and the Millennium Stadium
The Great Pyramids of Giza
Pyramids were built for pharaohs who had died. Egyptians believed that when they mummified their pharaohs, they would live forever and the pyramids would protect their belonging and their tomb. Pyramids were made of sand in the desert. The heat from the desert would keep the body of the pharaoh and their belongings from rotting away.
It took 14 years for 400 men to carve the faces of the 4 presidents of USA from the mountains and despite the harsh and dangerous conditions, fortunately there were no tragic accidents or deaths. The main aim for Mount Rushmore was to attract more people to the mountain.
This proved to be successful as there are approximately 3,000,000 visitors a year!
The Titanic left Southampton on April 10th 1912 and sank on April 14th 1912 when it hit an iceberg. It used 825 tonnes of coal per day to power the cruise ship and carried 3457 passengers.
The Eiffel Tower was the tallest man made structure for 41 years. Made entirely of 10,000 tonnes of iron, it is a main attraction of France with 250 million tourists annually. It requires at least 50 tonnes of paint every 7 years to prevent it from rust!
The Burj Khalifa is the tallest
free standing building in the world!
Situated in Dubai, there are clubs, hotels,
private residence and offices and with the
building being the tallest in the world, there
has to be the longest lift distance too!
Uluru is a large sandstone rock situated in the north territories of central Australia. It is estimated to 600 million years old and is considered sacred to the tribes that live by the rock. Climbing the rock is not considered as illegal, but disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture.
Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider is
located on the border of Switzerland and France. It is used to conduct scientific experiments using magnets to speed up particles which collide together. Experiments like this has resulted in the discovery of the Higgs Boson.
Mount Everest is the tallest mountain in the world situated between the border of China and India. It is over 60 million years old, consisting of limestone and marble and is constantly growing.
Neutron stars are mainly made out of neutrons! They are extremely dense and very difficult to find. One neutron can have the mass of twice the sun’s mass and it can be the size of Los Angeles.
Although not the deepest, it is the worlds widest canyon. It also reveals 40% of earth’s history which geologists can use to examine how long the canyon has been there. As it was formed so long ago, scientists struggle to agree on how it was formed in the first place.
According to spacetime theory quantum foam is the foundation of the fabric of the universe. Unfortunately it’s pretty much impossible to prove this because it’s too small to be measured or observed!
Eleven dimensions, parallel universes, and a world made out of strings. According to string theory strings are one-dimensional but vibrate in all other dimensions. How odd that everything is made of strings...
The Great Wall of China
This is the longest man made structure in the world! The total construction time was over 2000 years and took over 300,000 soldiers to build using stones, wood, rocks and earth. Contrary to belief, it’s not actually visible from space!
Great Barrier Reef
Situated in Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is the
largest reef system in the world! In fact, it’s so large, that it is visible on the moon! There are a huge number of different species of animals that live in the reefs and these reefs have grown over old reef platforms before the ice age 8000 years ago!
Pluto was the smallest planet in our solar system. In fact, it is so small that it’s not even consider it as a planet anymore! Despite the fact that Pluto is smaller than 7 of the moons in our solar system (including our own) it has 4 moons of its own. It’s official name is now “134340 Pluto”.
The moon is very important to the Earth and the gravitational influence produces ocean tides and sea levels. Did you know that we only ever see one side of the moon? What’s on the other side of it you ask? Well it’s gotta be aliens.
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. It takes 86 days to orbit the sun but takes 56 days to spin on its axis and as it has no atmosphere so the sky is always pitch black!
Mars is also known as the Red Planet. There is
evidence that it once had rivers, lakes and oceans but due to the deterioration of the atmosphere, the water began to evaporate permanently.
Venus is also known as the Earth’s sister planet, with the same size, chemistry and density. Venus could have inhabited life, but because it is slightly closer to the Sun than the Earth, it is too hot and surrounded by too much toxic gas.
Neptune is the windiest planet in our solar system with wind speeds reaching 1200 miles an hour! It has a total of 6 rings and 13 moons surrounding the planet. It is the planet furthest away from the Sun and it would take about 165 Earth years for it to orbit round the Sun once!
Neptune is the windiest planet in our solar system
with wind speeds reaching 1200 miles an hour! It has a total of 6 rings and 13 moons surrounding the planet. It is the planet furthest away from the Sun and it would take about 165 Earth years for it to orbit round the Sun once!
Saturn is made up of clouds of gas which is gradually turned into liquid which gives it a sea of chemicals on the surface. It has the widest and most visible rings in our solar system. In fact, you can barely see the rings around Jupiter and Uranus!
Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. There are never ending storms which can be seen from the colourful clouds of gas on the surface. The red dot on the planet known as the ‘eye of Jupiter’ is a storm that has been active for over 300 years.
This supercluster is well named as it contains over 100 galaxy clusters. We’re right on the outskirts of this supercluster!
This is a region in the night sky that’s actually
slightly cooler than the rest of it. It’s temperature is 2.7° K (-270.5° C) which is barely above absolute zero. One theory suggests that it leads to a parallel universe!
Sloan Great Wall
This is the largest known “object” in the universe.
It is formed by a giant wall of galaxies (called a galaxy filament) and is actually 1/60th of the diameter of the observable universe. We’re not actually in the Sloan Great Wall as it is one billion light years away from us!
Neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom along with the proton. protons are positively charged and there are usually more than one in a nucleus, therefore, as you may know, like charges repel so the neutron helps provide a strong nuclear force that keeps the protons together. Unlike a proton, a neutron has no charge.
If an atom was the size of a football stadium, a proton would be the size of a marble. All the protons in the universe were made shortly after the big bang and they are all exactly the same!
Electrons are negatively charged and weigh almost nothing! They were discovered by an English physicist who found that these electrons were the reason to how the atoms in the elements reacted chemically.
Carbon is one of the most common element in the universe and is the basis for all life on Earth. It was discovered by forms of charcoal and soot but it can also be found in the form of diamonds and graphite (in some pencils used in art).
Water is made of 2 hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom and this stuff covers 70% of the Earth! Not only is it one of life’s essentials, it is also used to produce electricity for our everyday use. Did you know that statistically at least one molecule in every glass of water has passed through a dinosaur?
A transistor is used in computers to amplify and switch electronic signals. They’re becoming smaller and smaller as time goes on. In 1971, they were 400 times larger than they are now!
HIV is a virus which weakens the immune system. They invade the cells that fight diseases so that the body can no longer fight for diseases. Although the virus can be fatal, it can take time for the symptoms to develop but there are also available treatment for this virus.
They carry all the genetic information in your body that makes you you and they are present in every living creature on this planet. Did you know that if you could unwrap all the information in your DNA you could travel to the moon 6000 times!
Carbon nanotube is a lot like a piece of wire netting made out of hexagonal shapes and rolled up into a tube. Although a nanotube is a lot smaller and you can not see it. They are considered as one of the strongest substances and can be used in lots of different applications including electronics and medicine.
When you eat, your body turns the sugar that you consume into glucose. Glucose can then be taken and used as a source of energy for your cells. For your body to get glucose, it needs to be broken down from carbohydrates in your intestines.
Cell membranes are made from a phospholipid bilayer and this controls everything that goes in and comes out of a cell! This bilayer is made out of proteins.
Proxima Centauri is small red dwarf with about 14% the size of the sun. It is the nearest star to the Sun and even has a planet the size of the earth that orbits around it, making it the nearest exoplanet to our solar system!
This is one of the brightest galaxies in the sky. It is around the same size as our milky way galaxy and the spiral arms show dense blue sections where new blue stars are being formed from the dense area of dust.
It has been estimated that the Pinwheel Galaxy has over 1 trillion stars! It has twice the diameter of our own galaxy and around 100 billion of these stars are like our sun!
This is the closest galaxy to ours. It is traveling around 140km per second towards our galaxy
and in around 4.5 billion years, it is expected to collide with our own!
Milky Way Galaxy
This is the galaxy that we live in. The galaxy is shaped like a whirlpool and rotates every 200million years. It is made up of 100 billion stars and would take 100,000 light years to cross it! Scientists think that there is a black hole in the center of our galaxy, but don’t worry, this is very far away from us.
The sombrero part of the galaxy is created from the dark dust lane and bulge which is said to be a black hole. There is an extreme gravitational force around this galaxy which makes it impossible to get near it.
The Sun provides energy to the earth for us to live. It can be used to grow crops, provide essential vitamins, produce electricity and provide light for our days. There are 7 planets orbiting the sun, the Earth included, and the time it takes for a planet to orbit the sun depends on the distance the planet is from the sun. For the Earth it is approximately 365 days.
VY Canis Majoris
This red hypergiant is 2000 times larger than our own sun! It is so big that it would take a standard airplane 1100 years just to go around it once!
Stingray Nebula | 7x10^14m
Stingray nebula is the youngest known nebula in space. It’s name reflects the shape of the bubble that is seen by the Hubble telescope.
Crab nebula has a diameter of about 10 light years, so if the sun was a basketball, the nebula would be the size of the earth! The name is reflected on the image of the nebula taken by the Hubble telescope.
Cat’s Eye Nebula
Cat’s eye Nebula has a mass of around 5 times more than the sun. It can be seen in the northern hemisphere and the name reflects on the image taken by the hubble telescope.
The name of the nebula reflects on the shape of the nebula which is due to the expansion of stellar wind. The nebula is shredding the materials from it’s surface which is what is seen from the images taken by the Hubble telescope.
This is the largest known Nebula. The name
reflects the image that is taken of the nebula from the Hubble telescope.
Although they may seem like annoying birds in the streets, they provaided a great postal service to soldiers in World War I and II. They are extremely intelligent creatures which flock together to protect themselves from prey and they mate for life.
You may very well have chicken eggs in your fridge at home. They may seem fragile and you may have even broken one or two by accident in the past, but if you had a number of eggs in a tray, it has could hold the weight of a grown man.
The pound coin use to be in the form of a note until 1988. There are different pictures on the pound coin to represent the countries that form Britain. The lion represents England, thistle for Scotland and leek for Wales.
Oats are used in traditional cooking. Most popular use of oats is in porridge and bread as it contains the nutrients that are needed in a healthy morning breakfast. Their health benefits include reduced heart disease and provides fibre for your intestines.
Grain of rice
Rice is the second highest worldwide production.
There are over 40,000 different types of rice all of which swells up to 3 times it’s size when cooked. In some cultures, grains of rice are thrown as confetti at weddings as they symbolise fertility.
Ants are insects that work together to serve for their queen ant. They are extremely strong and can lift up to 20 times their own weight! There are 35,000 different species of ants and the some have a lifespan of as long as 7 years!
The largest bacteria is called
. Did you know that if you weighed
all the bacteria in your body that it'd weigh about
Grain of salt
Salt used in cooking is normally sodium chloride
and it is extracted from the sea. Salt is essential in our bodies as they can't produce salt themselves. It is a very important mineral but too much of salt can also be bad for you.
Grain of sand
A grain of sand is very small, but under the microscope, they can tell us exactly where it originated from. It is hard to believe, but sand can also sing! In some parts of the world, the sand grains have a specific shape which emits a variety of sounds.
LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. Pixels are what makes up digital images on our computers and TV screens. LCD pixels are found in our digital TV screens and other electronic devices and they provide a screen where we can read off information.
Amoeba’s are unicellular which means that they are just one cell. Amoebas move by making part of its body move in the direction it wants to travel. Then slowly, the rest of the cell follows. In order to eat, an Amoeba flows around other microorganisms and then engulfs them. To reproduce, the Amoeba splits itself into two cells.
Thickness of paper
Paper is made from trees. The tree is turned into pulp and soaked in a chemical which removes the glue type substance that holds the cells in the tree together. It is then bleached to remove any toxins and to turn the pulp white. This is then used to make into paper of different thicknesses depending on it’s application.
An Ovum (Human egg) is largest cell in the female human body and has a diameter of about 1/400th of a chicken egg. Funny to think how we all started from such a little cell, isn’t it?
Smallest thing visible to the human eye
The smallest thing we can see is about 100 micrometers. This is exactly 1/10th of a millimeter! Tiny!
Width of human hair
Did you know that straight hair is perfectly cylindrical? Did you also know that you
probably have about 50,000 to 200,000
strands of hair?
Cell nucleus carries all the information of the cell. It is a very important part of the cell and acts like the brain. During mitosis, the DNA will condense into chromosomes, and then the cell will split in two.
White Blood Cell
White blood cells fight germs in the immune system. They are in your blood ready to fight the virus’ and bacteria that enter your body!
Red Blood Cell
Red blood cells carry oxygen around from
your heart to your lungs and then to the rest of the body. A red blood cell lives for around 120 days and travels through your heart every minute. In its lifetime, it can travel to up to 800 miles just around your body!
Chloroplast are found in plants and are used in photosynthesis (when the plant makes it’s own energy) by turning the carbon dioxide into glucose. We don’t need chloroplast in our cells as the energy we make comes from the food that we consume.
The largest virus is known as the Megavirus. It has the largest and most complex genome of all viruses. Did you know that viruses are not alive – they are inanimate complex organic matter. They lack any form of energy, carbon metabolism, and cannot replicate or evolve. Viruses are reproduced and evolve only within cells.
A bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria! The term is derived from 'bacteria' and the Greek “phagein” meaning "to devour". Looks a bit like a robot doesn’t it?
Asia is home to countries such as India, China and Japan. It is the largest continent and covers ⅓ of the earth’s surface. It’s population is over 4 billion - over half of the world’s population! Africa is the world’s second most populous continent but it only has 1 billion people.
USA has the world's largest economy and is the 4th largest country in the world. Did you know that although English is the most common language, there is no official language for America?
The United Kingdom
England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Island
were united in 1536 and called the United Kingdom. The addition of Scotland in 1707 created Great Britain. It was renamed the United Kingdom in
1801 when Ireland joined.