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Transcript of Michael Jordan
Emsley A. Laney High School
North Carolina University 1981-1984
3rd overall in 1984 NBA Draft to Chicago Bulls Honours
2 Olympic gold medals – 1984, 1992
6× NBA champion
6× NBA Finals MVP
5× NBA MVP
10 NBA scoring titles Self-Efficacy Judgements Performance Accomplishments
(i.e. Past Experience) Vicarious Experience
(i.e. modelling by others) Physiological & Emotional States Social Persuasion
(i.e. Coaching & Evaluative Feedback) Behaviour/Performance Intimidation Off-court Michael & brother Larry ESPN.com "What he does have is a
competition problem. He was
born with that... The person he
tries to outdo most of the time
is himself" James Jordan Snr Intimidation on-court Will to win continued In a study by Coakley & Hughes (1991) it showed that over conformity and under conformity is seen as a kind of deviance that can influence practice.
For a person to over conform, especially to the sport ethic, they would go above and beyond of what is expected of them as an athlete such as playing through the pain barrier for the sake of the team (Coakley & Hughes, 1991; Coakley 2001).
The flu-game- Going above and beyond the sport ethic
In sport coaches and athletes often want to win, no matter the cost to them or others. This is one part of the sport ethic described by Hughes and Coakley (1991). In the study by Hughes and Coakley (1991) they suggested that the sport ethic consisted of four values. These values were striving for distinction, making sacrifices for the game, refusing to accept limitations in the pursuit of winning and playing through pain Coakley & Hughes (1991)
The two types of deviance in sport The sport ethic consists of an athlete thinking that they should be recognized for their effort for things that no normal person would do, therefore these athletes go way beyond of what is expected off them as athletes. These athletes believe that these requirements are the bare minimum of what it takes to be an elite athlete (Nixon, 1996b). As some elite athletes strive for distinction they are always trying to improve themselves (Shipherd, 2010), this requires a lot of hard work, which will require a certain amount of pain (Malcolm, 2006).
Another factor that can lead to an athlete playing through pain is their level of athletic identity. Athletic identity is defined “the way you perceive and feel about your sporting role, which comprises your goals, values, thoughts and sensations related to your sport” ( IOC, ND). An athlete can hold a strong athletic identity, which in tangent can provide high levels of motivation, determination and certainly affect an athlete’s health, fitness and their performance in a positive manner (Stephan & Brewer, 2007).
In a study by Malcolm (2003) it showed that athletes with a stronger athletic identity usually follow the sport ethic with a stronger belief and these athletes are a high percentage to participate in sport injured as they feel that they have to do this as it is their obligation to the team or their coach (Stephan & Brewer, 2007). Also in a study by Brewer, Van Raalte & Linder (1993) it stated that participants with a high level of athletic identity usually competed at a higher level of competition than others with a low level of athletic identity. In the study by Tasiemski & Brewer (2011) it was stated that Athletic identity is related to different demographic and psychological factors. This is the case in men, as men tend to have a higher athletic identity than women do, and athletic identity has been found to be connected to age and the level of sport that the athlete competes at (Brewer, Van Raalte & Linder 1993; Brewer & Tripp, 2005; Tasiemski & Brewer 2011) Marcus Dorman- B00190505
Jamie Haldane- B00214276 Michael retired for the first time in October 6th 1993, shortly after his father was murdered. He went onto to short career in baseball in 1994, playing with the Birmingham Barons. During this time, it was well publicised in the media that Michael had gambling demons, including one famous incident, where he lost $1.25 million in a golf game (Riley, 1993). "On the biggest possession of the game, Mugsy had the ball with the Hornets down 1. Jordan backed off of him and told him: “shoot it you f—ing midget.” Mugsy shot it, didn’t come close. A year later Mugsy actually told Johnny Bach that he believes that single play ruined his career. His shot never recovered." - Mugsy Boggs
(Kerby, 2011) The two were playing golf together when MJ forced the former president to play from the furthest away tees.
"You're going to play from the little girls' tees?" Jordan asked him. (WSJ, 2011) Shaq says Jordan told him:
"I'm coming down. I'm going to dribble it between my legs twice. I'm going to pump fake and then I'm going to shoot a jumper. And then I'm going to look at you. And that's exactly what he did." (Dan Patrick Show, 2012) "As I close – the game of basketball has been everything to me. My refuge. My place I’ve always gone when I needed to find comfort and peace. It’s been a source of intense pain, and a source of most intense feelings of joy and satisfaction. And one that no one can even imagine. It’s been a relationship that has evolved over time, and given me the greatest respect and love for the game. It has provided me with a platform to share my passion with millions in a way I neither expected nor could have imagined in my career. I hope that it’s given the millions of people that I’ve touched, the optimism and the desire to achieve their goals through hard-work, perseverance, and positive attitude. Although I’m recognized with this tremendous honor of being in the basketball Hall of Fame – I don’t look at this moment as a defining end to my relationship with the game of basketball. It’s simply a continuation of something that I started a long time ago. One day you might look up and see me playing the game at 50. (laughs) Oh don’t laugh. Never say never. Because limits, like fears are often just an illusion. Thank you very much. Looking forward to it." - Michael Jordan (2009) NBA Hall of Fame Induction Speech Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Worth
Brewer, B. & Tripp, D. A. (2005). Citied in Hackfort, D., Duda, J. L. & Lidor, R. (Eds.), Psychological applications in the prevention and rehabilitation of sport injuries. Handbook of research in applied sport and exercise psychology: International perspectives, pp. 319-332. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology
Brewer, B. W., Van Raalte, J. L., & Linder, D. E. (1993). Athletic identity: Hercules' muscles or Achilles heel?. International Journal Of Sport Psychology, 24(2) pp. 237-254.
Coakley, J, (2001). Sport in society: Issues & Controversies. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York
The Dean Patrick Show (2012). Shaq weighs in on Phil Jackson, Michael Jordan's trash talk and Les Miles. [online] (November 28th 2012) Available at : http://www.danpatrick.com/2012/11/28/shaq-weighs-in-on-phil-jackson-michael-jordans-trash-talk-and-les-miles/ [Accessed 29th April 2013)
Hughes, R & Coakley, J. (1991). Positive deviance among athletes: The implications of over conformity to the sport ethic. Sociology of Sport Journal. 8, pp. 307-325
International Olympic committee (n.d) IOC Athlete Career Programme. Athletic identity and sport transition. [Internet], International Olympic committee. Available from: <http://www.olympic.org/Documents/elite_athletes/ATHLETIC_IDENTITY.pdf>[Accessed 10th December, 2012]
Kerby,T (2011). More Stories of Michael Jordan being Michael Jordan. [online] (September 29 2011). Available at <http://blogs.thescore.com/tbj/2011/09/29/more-stories-of-michael-jordan-being-michael-jordan/> [Accessed 28th April 2013)
Malcolm, N. L. (2006). Shaking it off' and toughing it out: Socialization to pain and injury in girls' softball. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35 pp. 495-525.
Nixon, H.L. (1996b). The relationship of friendship networks, sports experiences, and gender to expressed pain thresholds. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13(1) pp. 78-86
Riley.M (1993). Smells like another rose. [online] (June 21 1993) Available at : <http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1138538/2/index.htm> [Accessed 1st May 2013]
Shipherd, A.M, (2010). Over conformity to the sport ethic among adolescent athletes and injury. Thesis, The Florida State University College of Education. [Online] Available at <http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4595&context=etd> [Accessed 2nd January 2012]
Stephan Y. & Brewer, B. W. (2007). Perceived determinants of identification with the athlete role among elite competitors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology,19 pp. 67-79.
Tasiemski, T., & Brewer, B. W. (2011). Athletic Identity, Sport Participation, and Psychological Adjustment in People With Spinal Cord Injury. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 28(3) pp. 233-250.