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BI 3: Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

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Kimberly Christian

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of BI 3: Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

Eukaryotic Gene Expression & Regulation
Differential Gene Expression
different genes transcribed
different proteins translated
different cell structure & function
same genetic material
differential gene expression - transcription and translation of different genes in cells with the same genome
multicellular organisms are composed of many cells all of which contain the same genetic material
most multicellular organisms have specialized tissues and organs with different structures and functions
these cells are different because they produce different proteins
during embryonic development cells begin to specialize:
cell differentiation - process by which cells become specialized in structure and function
morphogenesis - organization of cells into an organism's shape
Regulation of Gene Transcription
3. multiple gene pathways
all genes required for one cellular process can be spread through genome
these genes all rely on the same regulatory mechanisms
1. DNA packaging (DNA is wrapped around proteins called histones)
DNA methylation - addition of -CH3 group to DNA
DNA coils around histones more tightly
transcription of these regions decreases
histone acetylation - addition of -COCH3 group to histones
DNA coils less tightly
transcription of these regions increases
2. transcription initiation complex (TIC) - group of proteins, including RNA polymerase, that bind at promotor region of gene to start transcription
enhancer - region of DNA near gene which facilitates formation of TIC
activators - group of signal molecules that attach to enhancer to increase gene transcription
this embryonic development is regulated by:
cytoplasmic determinants - maternal mRNA and other molecules that influence differentiation
induction - changes to cells resulting from chemical signals produced by neighboring embryonic cells
homeotic genes - highly conserved genes (few mutations between species) that control pattern of body development
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