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BI 3: Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

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Kimberly Christian

on 9 February 2018

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Transcript of BI 3: Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

Eukaryotic Gene Expression & Regulation
Differential Gene Expression
different genes transcribed
different proteins translated
different cell structure & function
same genetic material
differential gene expression - transcription and translation of different genes in cells with the same genome
multicellular organisms are composed of many cells all of which contain the same genetic material
most multicellular organisms have specialized tissues and organs with different structures and functions
these cells are different because they produce different proteins
Regulation of Gene Transcription
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/control/
1. DNA packaging (DNA is wrapped around proteins called histones)
DNA methylation - addition of -CH3 group to DNA
DNA coils around histones more tightly
transcription of these regions decreases
histone acetylation - addition of -COCH3 group to histones
DNA coils less tightly
transcription of these regions increases
this embryonic development is regulated by:
cytoplasmic determinants - maternal mRNA and other molecules that influence differentiation
induction - changes to cells resulting from chemical signals produced by neighboring embryonic cells
homeotic genes - highly conserved genes (few mutations between species) that control pattern of body development
2. RNA interference (RNAi)
microRNA (miRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) along with proteins sometimes bind to mRNA blocking translation by ribosomes or causing the degradation of the mRNA
during embryonic development cells begin to specialize:
cell differentiation - process by which cells become specialized in structure and function
morphogenesis - organization of cells into an organism's shape
3. transcription initiation complex (TIC) - group of proteins, including RNA polymerase, that bind at promoter region of gene to start transcription
enhancer or regulatory switch - region of DNA near gene which regulates formation of TIC
activators - group of signal molecules that attach to the enhancer DNA region to increase gene transcription
mediators - molecules that facilitate the formation of the TIC when activators are present
Full transcript