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Graphic Art II Week 6

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Biljana Kroll

on 18 February 2013

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Transcript of Graphic Art II Week 6

The Invention of Writing 32,000 BC Writing has origins into the creation of simple pictures






Movie: Cave of Forgotten Dreams Charcoal, red and yellow iron oxides
mixed with fat as medium This was not only the begining of art but the dawn of visual communication

Early pictures were made for survival and ritualistic purposes Pictographs represents objects (animals, people)

Ideographs represent ideas or concepts Cave Paintings at
Chauvet Pont D'Arc 32,000 bc
Lascaux 15,000 bc Mesopotamia 3500 BC The earliest written record:
Tablets from Uruk city Made out of clay, which was abundant in Sumer.
Reed stylus was used to draw.

They list commodities by pictoral drawings of objects accompanied with numerals and personal names On this tablet the symbol for "sun"
represented ideas such as "day" and "light"

Pictures become simplified into abstract wedge shapes - cuneforms Personal names, adverbs and other hard to represent ideas were broken down to sounds that represented objects.

Rebus writing - pictures that stand for words or syllables that represent the sound of the object described IBM logo, Paul Rand The highest development of cuneiform was using abstract signs to represent syllables, which are sounds made by combining more elementary sounds Writing helped organize and record:
-everyday events such as wars and victories
-religious events
-law and mathematics
-medicine

Writing helped stabilize societies. 3100 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs Unlike Sumerians, Egyptians kept their pictographic writing until the end of the Egiptian empire in 394 A.D. when it became Roman colony. Last to be able to read hyreoglyphs were Egyptian temple priests in 14th century but didn't want to share their knowledge with others. In the 18th century, Napoleon's troops uncovered a stone tablet in the town of Rosetta, known as the Rosetta Stone

First translation and understanding of hieroglyps began The writing is a recording of a gathering to celebrate the Egyptian pharaoh Ptolomey's ascension to the throne.

The event was recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian demotic script and Greek The importance of the ancient Egyptians is tremendous

- Sense of design
- Use of decorative elements
- Organization of writing
- Papyrus The use of papyrus had a major impact on religious writing and preservation

Cyperus papyrus flowers were used for garlands at the temples, roots were used as utencils and the stems were used for making rope, sandals and papyrus Knowledgable scribes gained power as were the only ones that knew how to read and write the complex language First Illustrated Manuscripts Egyptians were first to produce religious manuscipts in which words and images were combined

The Book of the Dead chronologically records what happens when a person dies. Alphabets 2000 BC Cretan Pictographs The hundreds of signs and symbols in cuneiform and hieroglyphs were replaced by 20-30 signs.

A set of visual symbols used to represent the elementary sounds of a spoken language.

The origins of the Alphabet:
Cuneiforms
Hieroglyphs
Cretan pictographs Phaistos disk
Stamps were used to impress each character into wet clay - the beginning of movable type.
First alphabet known.
Created by a nation of merchants.
Various scripts existed some more pictoral other inpired by cuneiforms.
Pictoral signs devoid of pictoral meaning.
Right to left writing developed because of the stone masons.

Phonenician alphabet was the influence on the early Aramaic and Hebrew alphabets. The Aramaic alphabet influenced early Indian writing. Phoenician Alphabet Phoenician alphabet Greek Alphabet Phoenician alphabet was brought into Greece

Greeks added structure to the letters, converted them into art forms with great harmony and beauty

Stroke weight was unified
Space between letters was considered
Each letter built based on geometric shapes: square, circle and triangle The early greek writings were read:
1st row right to left
2nd row left to right Later left to right writing was adopted
which became the standard for all
Western civilizations Rounded writing style, easier and quicker to write
Used by scribes Greek Uncials 250 BC Literacy flourishes and aids birth of democracy

Alexander the Great establishes the largest library of
the world in Alexandria. 200 AD Latin Alphabet Romans "borrowed" heavily by the Greeks who they conquered in 2 b.c.

The Roman alphabet had 21 letters
Y and Z added later
In the middle ages - 3 letters

W is a ligature of two Vs (12th century)
J is lengthened I (14th century) Insciption on the base of the Trajan Column Perfect example of:
Roman serifs (created with chisel marks)
Kerning
Thick and thin strokes Parchment Codex vs. Papyrus scroll
- writing on both sides
- durable
- long lasting
- smoother

Vellum - refined, bleached new born calf's skin Discovery of Paper
and Printing 105 AD Chinese Contribution Early Chinese writing was pictographic

Calligraphy developed from painting

Children were thought how to write by first learning to draw

Calligraphy expresses spiritual state and deep feelings
Light strokes vs. thick dark strokes

Calligraphy is described as having
bones
meat
blood
muscle
Traditiional Chinese Stamp

Traditionally used with red ink, the Chinese chop is usually made of stone or wood

A Chinese person will typically have three chops, one for bank transactions, one for documents and legal matters, and one for invitations and cards.

The chop is so highly regarded that a business deal can be concluded as long as the persons chop is present The Chinese chop Paper Invented in 105 A.D.
Process of making it stayed unchanged until the 19th century
Cheaper option to bamboo or silk Discovery of Printing Chops are considered as the beginning of block printing.

Larger stamps were created from inscriptions and stamped on paper.

Rubbings were made from stone monuments. Movable type To simplify using 44,000 characters
Raised characters were created out of wood
They could be reused in various compositions
Held in revolving type cases Illuminated Manuscripts The Gutenberg Bible Copperplate Engravings German Illustrated Books 400 AD Illuminated manuscripts Called "illuminated" because they were decorated with gold leaf which
gave the sensation of the page being illuminated. Created in monestaries across Europe from 400 AD to 1450 AD

Costly and time consuming:
-Parchement and vellum took hours to prepare (300 sheep skins = 1 book)
-Inks prepared from mineral, animal and vegetable matter
- Gold grounded into powder or applied in smooth fine sheets
- Leather binding and precious jeweles were added at the end All books prepared in the writing room of a monestary. Monestaries were the cultural and educational centers.

Scrittori - the educated monk scolar who understood Greek and Latin who served as an art director and editor.

Copisti - the letterer

Illuminator - the illustrator that added decoration in the margins

Colophon - credits page listing all involved

"Writing dims your eyes, makes your back ache, and knits one's chest and stomach together" Celtic Illuminated Books Celtic design is abstract and extremely complex
Geometric patters interwoven
Bright colors The Book of Durrow 680 AD is the earliest ornamented Celtic book

Interlace
Initium
Caroline Miniscule - first lowercase alphabet The Book of Kells
Chi-Rho (XPI) page
Matthew 1:18

13 human heads, mice, otter holding a salmon Gothic Manuscripts 1300 AD
Ormesby Psalter

Textura, blackletter
Space-saving Paraboles and stories hidden in the intricate detail 1300 AD 1400 AD Beginnings of Printing Manuscripts were expansive to produce
Only the wealthy and churches could own manuscripts
One book = 1 farm or vineyard


Paper making and woodblock printing made its way from China - Arab World - Europe

First paper mill established in 1276, Italy Watermarks 1300 AD - 1400 AD Wood block printing Playing Cards
First printed materials intended for the illiterate masses

Hearts signified clergy
Spades (spada) - swords , nobility
Leaflike club - peasantry
Diamonds - middle class (town people) 1450 AD Johannes Gutenberg Goldsmith by trade
Knew how to produce mirrors
Interested in mechanizing printing

10 years to produce first print

20 years to produce the first typographical book
The Forty-two line Bible

Things he addressed:
• Type - textura
• Type mold for each character made of unique alloy
that can withstand thousands of impressions
• New darker black ink
• New press inspired by wine presses 1282 pages
2 Volumes
6 total presses used to print
290 characters used Johann Fust, Peter Schoeffer
Johann Gutenberg 1459 AD The Master of the Playing Cards Developed the earliest copperplate engravings

Engraving is printing from an image that was cut down into the printing surface

A drawing is scratched on a smooth metal plate.
Ink goes into depressions
Plate is wiped
Paper is pressed agains plate Compare Engraving vs. Wood cut 1500 AD Printing spreads across Europe By 1500 there were 140 towns with print presses.
Free pamphlets and flyers distributed
Literacy improves

Printers in Germany used to print type using printing press
and added wood block illustrations Albrecht Durer Grew up in Nuremberg, the print capital of Germany
Worked as an illustrator at his godfather's print shop
Known as the greatest artist of Northern Renaissance Ink drawing based of description of a rhinocerus The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Wood block print Wood cut print The Renaissance 1500s Nicolas Jenson Printer who created the first font known for its
legibility.
Focused on creating even tone on the page instead of using
blackletter (gothic) type Printer Trademarks The printed page Woodcut flourishes and florals around
the printed text Secular books printed explaining geometry and
astrology contained Section Heads, Titles, diagrams
and very delicate geometric drawings Later efforts were made to have everything
on the page printed. Decorative elements were
casted like type. Ideal proportions of type, Perspective, the Golden Section, classical mythology

He used a square grid that foreshadows the pixels of today’s digital letterforms, a grid on which the perfect shape of a human face or body could also be set out. 1520s Geoffroy Tory Most influential graphic designer of the century

Typical Renaissance man: scholar, editor, scribe, illuminator, and bookseller Designed number of
initials, 13 fonts including a novelty font Champ Fleury 1530s Claude Garamond First type maker to work independently of print shops.

Created Roman typefaces based on roman letterforms instead of calligraphic handwriting (textura/gothic)

Established the first type foundry Tory's initials and Garamond's type isnpired a whole generation of printers to create books filled with elegance and clarity 1550s Johann Oporinus Printer known for printing
De Humani Corpis Fabrica
(Contruction of the Human Body) Written by the founder of modern anatomy
Andreas Vesalius

Full page illustrations, large margins, clean pages

Most copied, translated book of the century Copperplate engraved illustrations 1640 Stephen Daye
Jesse Glover
Ann Glover First printing
in North America The Whole Book of Psalms The Rococo Era 1770s The Industrial Revolution Photography Rococo Fancy, ornate. Inspired by natue, oriental and medieval art.
Light pastel colors.


Pierre Simon Fournier was fist to establish standardization at his typefoundry
Interested in letter proportions
Established the idea of "type family" that are visually compatible and can be mixed. Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune George Bickham Copperplate engraving became very popular during Rococo because it allowed penman to create fancy flourishes Bickham and other engraves decorated title pages and decorative images for wealthy customers The Universal Penman
Showcases 200 ornamental elements "for the amusement of the curious." Each letter was inscribed by hand William Caslon Every English printing company used Caslon Old Style for the next 60 years.

Caslon type represents the OLD STYLE of type design that begun during the Rennaisance.

Caslon's type was not fashionable, but highly legible and easy to read. Caslon's type foundry stayed opened by his heirs until 1960s. Printer Benjamin Franklin introduced Caslon into the American colonies where it was used for the printing of the Declaration of Independence. He designed, cast, set type, improved the printing press,
created darker ink and smoother, whiter paper.

He also designed and published to books he printed.

Baskerville type represents the TRANSITIONAL style. John Baskerville He opted for purely typographic book Fournier - late 1760's Baskerville - late 1750's When Rococo design reclined with the fall of Louis XVI all branches
of design strived to look at classical roman and greek art.

Bodoni led this transition to Modern style typefaces.

The term "modern" was used by Fournier in his Typogrpahical Manual to
describe the type created by Bodoni. Giambatista Bodoni Book design of this era - open, airy page designs, generous margins, high contrast between thick and thin strokes Before Didot, various type sizes were named: Petit-Romain, Gros-Text etc
Didot changed this by applying system of measurments: 10 point, 12 points etc.
His system of measuring type was adopted across Europe and the US in the 1880s.

Dodot fonts represent pure Neo-Classical style, which at that time was the Modern style. Francoise-Amorise Didot 1780s Steel, iron and other materials become more accessible
New machinery invented
Electricity
Capitalist society
Growing urban population
Cheaper merchandise
Increased litteracy The Industrial Revolution Typography 2-inch type







More typeface designs than ever before ABC slab serif

3D type

sans serif

Tuscan (novelty) The Wood-type Poster Larger type sizes = casting problems

Large size type was difficult to work with:
- hard to produce, cast
- expensive
- brittle
- heavy Thomas Cotterell, Vincent Figgins, Robert Thorne Darius Wells, american printer experimented
with printing with hand-carved wooden type

Wood type was:
-durable
-light
-inexpensive 1800s Joseph Niepce He was looking for a way to automatically transfer
drawings onto printing plates.

He invented the process of creating haliogravure Coated a pewter sheet with natural light-sensitive asphalt which
hardens when exposed to light. Then he covered the plate with
the waxed drawing. The parts exposed to sunlight hardened. Next he
etched the exposed surface with acid so that ink enters inside the lines. Then he used the plate to create a print. In 1826 he placed one of the metal plates into his camera obscura.

Camera obscura is a dark box or a chamber with a hole on one side. The light comes through, gets flipped upside down on a flat surface. This allowed him to make a picture from nature not a drawing. When he removed the picture from the camera obscura and washed it, a hazy image of the buildings outside his workroom window was captured. Few years later in 1839, Louis Jacques Daguerre perfected this process by using silver-plated copper sheet, iodine vapor, which made the plate light sensitive and exposing plate over a dish with heated mercury.

This was a very delicate, difficult process.

It was also limiting because copies could not be produced. Louis Jacques Daguerre William Henry Fox Talbot He created the first cameraless image.
Used a sheet of writing paper, coated with salt and brushed with a solution in silver nitrate, darkened in the sun and a second coating of salt impreded further fading.

He used it to create precise tracings of botanical specimens.

He pressed leaf on a piece of sensitized paper, covered it with a sheet of glass, and set it in the sun. Where the light struck the paper darkened. Later, he created the first negative image by printing a reverse image of another image on his sensitized paper in sunlight.

The invention of the negative was ground breaking.

Out of the negative multiple number of prints could be made. Print of the first photographic negative
made with Talbot's light sensitive paper inside a camera obscura. Print of the first negative. In 1888, George Eastman introduced the first Kodak camera for ordinary people. Photography and Printing Wood-engraving blocks were type-high so could be printed at the same time with type. Engravings had to be printed in separate press run.

Photographs in the beginning were used as a base for doing drawings of life-like accuaracy. These drawings were turned into wood-engravings. Victorian Era 1800s During the reign of Queen Victoria
Started in Britain and Ireland.

The design style of this period is a mixture of historical influences: gothic, rennaisance, islamic art, spanish art, "savage" tribal art and natural forms. Owen Jones
designer and author Greeting Cards:
Ideas of sentimentality, true love, nostalgia and cuteness were established Chromolithography Since medieval times, applying color was done by hand, which was slow and costly.

German printers developed the first color lithography, later called chromolithography.

The printer analizes the colors in the original image
Printer separates them in 5-10 plates
Uses each plate to print color separately. Louis Fili Storybooks
and magazines 1800s Before the "Victorian Era" children seen as little adults.

During the Victorian Era - toys, coloring books, storybooks Randolph Caldecott Exegerated facial expressions
Gave life to everyday objects and animals British children's illustrators Walter Crane He was just twenty when he published his first
alphabet storybook
Studied wood block printing Caldecott Medal 1938 - Present Kate Greenway Capturing the careless palytime of Victorian children
Great page layouts
Great attention to detail THEN NOW Magazines Harper's New Monthly Magazine - 144 pages
Contained woodcut illustrations and stories

Harper's Weekly - 1857

Harper's Bazar - 1867

Harper's Young People - 1879 Thomas Nast Worked for Harper's Weekly

Father of American Political Cartooning

Images he popularized: Santa Claus, the Democratic Donkey, the Republican Elephant,
Uncle Sam, Columbia (female figure simbolizing liberty) Charles Dana Gibson Started the "Golden Age of American Illustration" where illustrators were given a lot of freedom and space on the pages of magazines.

"The Gibson Girl" - feminine ideal of beauty + brains. Stron minded, witty, independent, fashionable. Arts and Crafts
Movement Late 1800s Flourished in England as a reaction against the social, moral and artistic confusion of the Industrial Revolution which cause separation of production and art.

Return to hand-crafted design - rejoining art + craft
Against cheap and mass-produced goods William Morris Leader of the movement

Textile designer, artist, writer, and socialist

He designed textiles, furniture and stained glass for his new house.

Started a design firm in London. His team included weavers, stain glass fabricators, tile makers etc.

He was known for his elaborate floral wallpaper, carpet and textile patterns inspired by Medieval art Kelmscott Press Moris established Kelmscott Press at his country home.

Created 3 typefaces and started printing books with careful attention to design Morris designed 644 blocks of initials, borders, frames and title page decorations.

Hoped to bring art to the working class. Unfortunatelly his designs were available only to the wealthy. Copperplate Gothic, Kennerley, and Goudy Old Style Frederic Goudy Worked as a bookkeeper in Chicago, where he got introduced to Kelmscott press.

Worked as freelance designer and typeographer.
Designed 122 typefaces One of Goudy's students William Dwiggins established the term
"graphic designer" in the 1920s to describe his profession.

He also designed the font Caledonia, one of the most used typefaces. Ukiyo-e 1600s-1800s Japan "Pictures of the Floating World"

The final phase of traditional Japanese history

Time of flourishing arts and economical stability

Time of national isolation 30,000 woodblock prints, paintings, sketches and illustrations.
Scenese of everyday life, mountains and bridges Katsushika Hokusai Artist created separate drawing for each color
Wood cutter carved the design into the wood, distroying the original drawing in the process Art Nouveau 1890-1910 Art, architecture, fashion, advertising, packaging etc.

Organic, plant-like, elegant.

Birds, vines, flowers and human female forms

Art Nouveau - term for all new art (american, japanese and european)
at a Paris Gallery - Salon de l'Art Nouveau.





Meeting place for artists. Louis Comfort Tiffany's work was shown here. Art Nouveau is sometimes dismissed as surface decoration not art. BUT it played pivotal role in the evolution of art and design in the future.

It formed a bridge between Victorian Art and Modernism.

Before Art Nouveau - ornaments used as decorative elements on furniture or architecture.

During Art Nouveau - the basic structure and shape were one with the ornament

New design principle - form and decor working together Art Nouveau was inspired by:
Celtic ornaments
Rococo style
Arts and Crafts
Japanese ukiyo-e prints Jules Charet Poster designer and illustrator

1881 - new French law gave freedom to post posters anywhere except on churches or
government buildings.

The street becomes an art gallery Cheret worked with the lithography process to create the posters. Bold colors, black outlines, watercolor-like washes, hatching and splattering Cherettes - young, fashionable women enjoying life Eugene Grasset Swiss-born
Studied Medieval Art and Oriental Art

Established the coloring book style Botticelli Grasset Ukiyo-e Jan Toorop Dutch
Inspired by Gothic Art, Victorian painting and
Javanese shadow pupets Henry de Toulouse-Lautrec Known for the posters for the Moulin Rouge can can dancers

- simplification of form to symbols: black silhouette,
- dynamic layout
- bold colors of limited palette He worked directly on the lithograph stone from memory Alphonse Mucha Czech artist
Went to Paris at 27

His first job as to illustrate a poster featuring actress
Sarah Bernhardt for the play Joan of Arc

Bottom of poster unfinished - only one week to do it Female figure surrounded by a fluid splash of florals and vines.

Inspired by plants and flowers, Moravian folk art, Byzantine mosaics After seeing the poster she signed him for 6 more years of posters, jewelry and costume designs Pattern Book: Ornamental Combinations Will Bradley American Art Nouveau artist

Experimented with overlapping repeated images Ethel Reed Established the Wayside Press inspired by Moriss' Kelmscott Press

Later sold it to Cambridge University First American woman to be recognized as graphic designer

At 19, became known for poster and book illustrations

She dissapears in England at age 21 Counter Movements:
Glasgow School Frank Llyod Wright Rejected historicism
Interested in organic architecture
Perspective: it's not in the facade it's in the dynamic interior (space as essence of design

Organic design is "something in which the part is to the whole as the whole is to the part, and which is all devoted to a purpose..."

Inspired by Japanese architecture, simple geometric repetitions of horizontal and vertical planes.

Architecture, furniture, graphics, fabrics, wallpapers and stained-glass Worked as a printer where he learned to incorporate space (black or white) as an element of design.

1898, Frank Lloyd Wright and William Herman Winslow printed ninety copies of The House Beautiful on a hand press.
Wright designed the book and decorative elements.

Described the various elements that work together to create "the house beautiful" A group of 4 young Scottish artists

Charles Macintosh
J. Herbert McNair
Margaret and Frances Macdonald

The four are known for
-Symbolic complexity
-Geometric style of composition
- Stylized form
- Bold planes of color
- Abstract interpretation of the human form Glasgow School of Art
The sisters:
- Religious beliefs represented in their work
- Fantasy, feminine details Charles Machintosh Margaret and Frances Macdonald
J. Herbert McNair Charles Mackintosh:
Designed furniture and interior spaces
-Rising vertical lines
- Subtle curves Counter Movements:
Vienna Secession Inspired by Glasgow School

Born because of the clash between traditional and new:
Kunstlerhaus old vs. young members

First exhibition poster of the Secession: Gustav Klimt
Joseph Maria Olbrich
Koloman Moser
Josef Hoffman The Vienna Secession Athena (Goddess of Arts) with Medusa
Theseus and the Mineraur
Male nude - a problem, trees added later
This controversy fuieled interest at the public Thier style at the hight
Koloman Moser, Exhibition no.13 Vienna Secession's magazine: Ver Sacrum (Sacred Spring)
1898-1903

- color etchings,lithographs and woodcuts
- design lab: metallic inks used, translucent paper, embossing
- staff changed constantly
-rotating committee of artists
- unpaid contributors of art and design
- epxerimentation
- 600 copies printed Koloman Moser http://www.johncoulthart.com/feuilleton/?s=ver+sacrum&x=0&y=0 Walter Crane, diagram of his book
Line and Form, 1900, shows the evolution Alfred Roller posters
(beginning of cubism and art deco elements) New Era: New Design The Vienna Secession German artist, architect, graphic designer

Early advocate of sans-serif typography

Developed first Brand Identity

Interested in relationship between art and society. Celebration of Art and Life, 1900
First book with sans-serif body text Behrens established the Brand ID for AEG (owned by Electrolux)
Grid layout
Typeface design
Logo design
Simple illustrations
Product design: lamps, teaketles NEW OBJECTIVITY in Germany
Turn towards practical engagement with the world
Art serving a purpose for better society


William Morris = against machine age (1890s)
Peter Behrens = art can give form and meaning to machine-made objects (1900s) Studied greecian art for proportions and unity, used technology to achieve better form Akzidenz Grotesk -Created by Berthold Foundry
- 10 variations of one font
- The beginning of type family development (creating emphasis within one font) London Underground Underground Electric Railways of London consolidated
most of the urban transporation.

The company needed to simplify the clutter of advertising in the underground system and offer a clear graphic system of information for the passengers.

Edward Johnson was hired to design new typeface in 1916.
Typeface has perfect proportions - O is perfect circle Cubism Pablo Picasso - introduces paper collage into his work













- Elements of african art - symplified human forms Paul Cezanne
Treated nature in terms of a cylinder, a sphere and a cone

Analythical Cubism
Reality analized as planes from several points of view
Creating rhythm - Interested in compisition not pictoral art Fernand Leger La Fin Du Monde
A book about God's decision to distroy life on earth
due to human's warlike nature

Features: spiraling words, simple shapes, emphasis on composition Futurism Explosive and emotionally charged.
All about speed, the future, technology, violence

The manifesto: "We will distroy museums, libraries, and fight against moralism, feminism..."

Against harmony, principles of design, order,art critics Filippo Marinetti Dada - Reaction against WWI
- Against art
- Negative, distructive
- Rejection of tradition
- Nonsense poetry
- Absolute freedom The Bearded Heart Dada artist claimed they invented photomontage 'The Art Critic' by Raoul Hausmann 1919-1920 John Heartfield, anti-nazi propaganda 1935
"Adolf, the superman: Swallows gold and talks tin" Hanna Hoch, "Da-Dandy" collage Raoul Hausmann, ABCD, 1923-24 Paula Scher, 1990 Surrealism -Roots in dada
-World of intuition, dreams, the unconcious
- Sought to reveal the language of the soul Max Ernst, collages of Victorian clippings Poster Design Plakatstil (Poster style) - Germany
- Flat blocks of color
-Minimalist Lucien Bernhard, 1905 advertising First prize in advertising contest The image was created in a reductive method War Posters Poster reaches the pinnacle of importance
during WWI 1914-1918 Central Powers Propaganda
-Inspired by Plakatstil
-Emphasizing their power Julius Klinger Julius Gipkens Allies' Posters
- Illustrative
- Litteral not symbolic
- Emphasizing tradition Alfred Leete, British propaganda poster James Montgomery Flagg, US version Jesse Willcox Smith Ludwig Hohlwein 1936
Symbolizes the airline, german victory at Berlin Olympics, and the triumph of the nazi movement pictoral and graphic symbols used Hitler and Branding Nazi Pamhlet for Hitler Youth Hitler understood the power of the brand
Inspired by Peter Behrens (think AEG branding) After the War -The war brought faith in technology, machinery
- A prosperous decade follows
- Cubism aesthetic qualities used A.M. Cassandre Motion, scale, color, type Bifur typeface, 1929 Russian Supremitism
and Constructivism The Zeitgeist in Russia after WWI The social causes of the Russian Revolution:
- Centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime,
- Nicholas's failures in World War I.
- The beginnings of communism - The desire of the people for democratic participation in government decisions was strong since the Age of Enlightenment, Russian intellectuals had promoted Enlightenment ideals such as the dignity of the individual and democracy

Czar Nicholas overthrown and executed with family
Red October, October Revolution, Civil war in Russia
Red Army of Bolsheviks (political party which later becomes the Communist party) wins.




- Geometric abstraction, completely non-onjective
- Rejection of utalitarian purpose and pictoral representation
- Expression of feeling, seeking no practical values, no ideas
The contrast and the feeling it evokes IS the essence Kasimir Malevich Malevich and Kandinsky believed art should remain spiritual activity a part
from the needs of society.
- Art free of political or social role.

-25 artists rejected "art for art's sake"
-visual communication and industrial design favored
-art serving the community
- paintings useless, posters favored,
COMMUNICATION OVER PERSONAL EXPRESSION

"artist as a citizen of the community who is clearing the field of old rubbish in preparation for the new life" Constructivism, 1920 Supremitism, 1915 El Lissitzky -Studied architecture and engeneering
-Applied architecture principles to painting
-Suprematist simple shapes transformed into symbols
-Saw the Russian Revolution as a new beginning Familiar with De Stijl, the Bauhaus, Dada Veshch, Russian Art Journal
by El Lissitzky, editor Ilya Ehrenburg

Experiments with photomontage, printmaking,
and graphic design

Interested in creating dynamic layout using diagonal axis, asymetrical balance

Uses limited palette of red, black and white Book design 1923, For the Voice Alexandar Rodchenko Communist artist
Experimented with photography and typography

Abandoned painting and started designing magazine Lef He applied the concept of serial painting ( a series of works unified by common elements or structure) The title, color and photos changed while the layout stayed the same -Used heroic images
-Designed posters as a way of celebrating Soviet accomplishments
-Strongly believed that photomontage is the future
- Perished in labor camp Gustav Klutsis De Stijl Movement in Netherlands, 1917

- Abstract geometric style
- Seeking new laws of harmony for art which could become prototype for a new social order

The Guggenheim Museum: De Stijl was positioned on the fundamental principle of the geometry of the straight line, the square, and the rectangle, combined with a strong asymmetricality; the predominant use of pure primary colors with black and white; and the relationship between positive and negative elements in an arrangement of non-objective forms and lines." Piet Mondrian Interested in achieving dynamic movement and equilibrium,
esablished by balancing unequal but equivalent opposing forces. De Stijl traits:

- Curved lines eliminated
- Sans serif typefaces preferred
- Asymmetrical balance
- Blocky look The Bauhaus New school in Germany, opened 1919, by Walter Grupius
They sought solutions for the problems faced by the working classes in the depression years of Post World War I Germany. Their concerns included urban planning, housing, and the development of high-quality, utilitarian mass production of consumer goods
Name: Staatliche Bauhaus (The State Home for Building)
Arts and craft school
After the WWII starts, many teachers and students come to US, influence a whole generation of designers

Bauhaus Manifesto:
" Today the arts exist in isolation...architects, painters and sculptues must learn anew the composite character of the building as an entity."

- New unity of art and technology
- Finding new forms and new solutions...form and function as one
- Artist enouraged to solve problems of visual nature
- Similar aims with De Stijl movement
- Study of materials, color theory, and formal relationships in preparation for more specialized studies Laszlo Moholy-Nagy Hungarian constructivist
Teacher at the Bauhaus

Believed art is a tool of communication
Emphasized legibility and clarity PRIOR to aesthetics
Passionate about typography De Stijl and
The Bauhaus Interested in Man Rays' work and photograms because it allowed artists to capture a patterned interplay of light and dark

Interested in creating/working with abstract patterns The school publishes a magazine and 14 books
about art theory and application to architecture and design

Editors: Kandinsky, Mondrian, Moholy-Nagy etc.

The school closed by the Nazi, 1933 after years of harrasment

Many of the teacher fled to the US Individual visions Jan Tschichold and the new typography -German,
-Applied the principles of De Stijl and Bauhaus outside art circles and introduced them to printers and typesetters
- Studied calligraphy
- Writes Die Neue Typographie

- Finds that asymmetrical typogrpahy expresses the life of the day (zeitgeist)
- The role of typography is the delivery of a message in efficient manner Accused by Nazi of creating un-german typography and being "Bolshevist"
Escapes with family in Switzerland During the 1940s he was the art director for 500 Pinguin books, lived in London

Revival of traditional type, leaves sans-serif type in the past Eric Gill - Brittish
- Very controversial personal life, devout catholic
- Stonemason, graphic designer, type designer
- Created the Gill Sans series: 14 styles The Four Gospels, 1931
- descending type sizes for emphasis, initials
- wood cut prints with type Paul Renner German,
His font Futura seen as bridging the gap between 19th century(traditional) and 20th century(modern) aesthetic
Futura typeface: 15 typestyles, 4 italics, two display fonts
- Most widely used sans-serif family Piet Zwart - Dutch
- Architect, designed furniture and interiors
- Inspired by Dada and De Stijl
- No formal training in typogrpahy, uninhibited by rules

- Saw "space as field of tension" brought alive by rhythmic composition, contrast of sizes and dynamic play between typeogrpahy and background Advertisement for Netherland Cable Factory Herbert Matter Swiss designer, photographer

- Assisted Cassandre in poster design
- Inspired by Constructivism
- Worked on series of posters for the Swiss National Tourist Office, 1935

His posters use:
- photo montage
- dynamic scale changes
- integration of type and image
- extreme contrast of color and size
-uncomon camera angles Design in the US Harper's Bazaar Many of the talent in Europe flees to US in late 1930s. Erte (Romain de Tirtoff) - Russian
- Worked in Paris as an illustrator
- Art Deco style Alexey Brodovitch - Director 1934-1958
- Russian, fought in WWI
- Worked in Paris

- Interested in white space
- sharp type
- rhythmic motion across page
- comissioned worked from Dali, Cassandre, Man Ray
- contrast very important Container Corporation of America - CCA During WWII - promoted use of cardboard packaging

"A paperboard goes to war" ads Commisioned artists out of each state to design the posters

Bauhaus ideal: The union of art and life. Herbert Bayer (Student at Bauhaus) 1914-1920 1920s, 1930s 1920s, 1930s 1920s, 1930s In the book, The Non-Objective World, published abroad as a Bauhaus Book in 1927, Malevich described the inspiration which brought about the powerful image of the black square on a white ground:

"I felt only night within me and it was then that I conceived the new art, which I called Suprematism The new order of Stalinism prohibited abstraction and divergence of artistic expression "goal-oriented creation" "Beat your drums on the squares of the riots, turned red with the blood of revolution."

The title type represents the drum beat
the red square signifies the blood-stained town squares. Check out the MOMA exhibit on Constructivist books http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2002/russian/index.html Moholy-Nagy is invited to come and reopen the school in the US. Sponsored by Walter Paepcke, the Chairman of the Container Corporation of America

The school later becomes part of Illinois Institute of Technology and became the first institution in the United States to offer a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Design. This book was a manifesto of modern design, in which he condemned all fonts but sans-serif (called Grotesk in Germany) Alphabet design for a sign shop avoided the decorative, non-essential elements

a modern typeface should express modern models, rather than be a revival of a previous design Under the leadership of Walter Paepcke, CCA became a patron of graphic arts and design. 1928 1927 View the full collection of posters here:
http://www.fulltable.com/vts/c/concor/menu.htm Acier Noir font - A.M. Cassandre Alexandar Rodchenko Paula Scher and Steven Kopel "Great Beginnings"
Promo booklet, 6000 copies mailed to potential clients - Mid 1980's Largely credited with expanding the use of photography as a design tool Symbolism in Color Red - The Workers and Peasants Army

White - Pro Tzar, Anti-Communist Soviet Union Propaganda Graphic design, art, whether literature, visual art, or performing art, was for the purpose of propaganda. Furthermore, it should show one clear and unambiguous meaning Imagery:
- heroic realism
- the worker and peasant as heros
- the woman: strong worker, mother
- agricultural scenes
- children working together Elements:
Bold, limited pallete
Large, bold text
Short catchy lines
ROSTA Caricatures TODAY Mies Van De Rohe Modern
Painting Modern
Architecture Modern
Design http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/08/02/bauhaus-ninety-years-of-inspiration/ Kandinsky 1. The new typography emphasizes function
2. The goal of every typography is communication (whose means it represents). Communication must appear in the shortest, simplest and most forceful form.
3. The basic typeface form is the sans serif typeface in all variations: light, semibold, bold, condensed to extended.
Typefaces that belong to particular styles or have limited national character (Gothic, black letter) are not elementally designed and limit the possibility of international understanding. 1927 Movie Posters 1925 A marriage of image and text that recalls the best of medieval illuminated manuscripts, yet is suited perfectly to the modern age and flawless in its execution Barbara Kruger Dr.Mehemed Agha Defined the role of the magazine art director in the early 20th century Worked for Conde Nast
Brought european avant garde experimentation to the pages of Vogue, Vanity Fair, and House & Garden 1930s white space/sans serif/large photos
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