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Case and Function in Latin
Transcript of Case and Function in Latin
Cases are different forms of the word that show how the word is being used in the sentence.
Its use is called function. CASE = FORM FUNCTION = USE Every case has a determined function or use. CASE AND FUNCTION CASE FUNCTION NOMINATIVE SUBJECT GENITIVE POSSESSION/OWNERSHIP DATIVE INDIRECT OBJECT ACCUSATIVE DIRECT OBJECT ABLATIVE OBJECT OF PREPOSITION NO GOOD DOG ACTS ABNORMALLY S P I D O NOMINATIVE Definition - before the verb
GENITIVE "of" "'s"
DATIVE "to" / "for"
ACCUSATIVE Definition - after the verb
ABLATIVE "by" / "with" / translated with a preposition TRANSLATION NOMINATIVE GENITIVE DATIVE ACCUSATIVE ABLATIVE Nominative Case Subject, Predicate Adj/Nom Who/ What is the sentence about? Bradley Cooper is an actor. Selena Gomez is singing. The girls walk to the beach. Bradlius Cooperus est actor. Selena Gomez cantat. Puellae ad litus ambulant. Explains what the sentence is about. Who/What does the action. Genitive Whose is it? To whom does it belong? Shows possession / ownership The name of the game is Scrabble. "of" "'s" The girl's flower is beautiful. Puellae rosa est pulchra. The word that shows the ownership is
in the Genitive, not the object. The genitive answers the question whose is it? Of whom/what? Dative Indirect object to whom/what is something given, shown, or told "to whom/ what" "for whom/what" Puer rosam puellae dat. The boy gives the rose to the girl He sings the song to her. The award for Best Actress goes to.... He sings her the song. Dative shows to whom or what something is done, given, told, or shown. ACCUSATIVE Direct object Translates as the definition,
but after the verb in the sentence. Subject (Nom)= before verb
Direct object (Acc)= after verb The subject verbs the direct object. Never is used with the verb "to be" (is, are, etc....) Megan Fox is making a movie. Julius Caesar crossed the river. The cat chases the mouse. Accusative case is expressed after the verb in a sentence. What the subject is doing the action to. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SUBJECT _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SUBJECT ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SUBJECT ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SUBJECT ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SUBJECT SUBJECT ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ POSSESSION ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ POSSESSION ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ indirect object ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ indirect object ~~~~~~~~~ indirect object ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ direct object ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ direct object ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ direct object ABLATIVE Object of the Preposition has a preposition before it or translates with one "by" "with" or meaning of prep The girl lives in Rome. ~ She rowed the boat with oars. ABLATIVE ABLATIVE