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Managing Racism in Sport
Transcript of Managing Racism in Sport
Commitment to and implementation of the equal opportunity principles
Create Access for participation
Support Anti-Racism Initiatives
Discipline against discrimination #football anti-racism campaigns Kick it Out! Initiator: Governing body Aim: the development of partnerships that bring together footballing organizations with communities to work in partnership on problems of exclusion and discrimination Communication tools:
Social networks Sanctions: no special sanctions Communication tools:
Educational resources (films, classes)
Special activities (football festivals, coaching sessions)
Social networks #definition #cricket anti-racism campaigns Managing racism in sport Oxford Dictionary Definition: Racism is the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races and the expression of such prejudice Racism was a term coined by critics of racial superiority theorists that came to prominence in early-nineteenth-century Europe. Today, the word is used more broadly to apply to racially unfair and discriminatory beliefs, actions, desires, projects, persons, groups, social institutions, and practices
Racism (Robert Miles, 1989) Sociological definition: Racism came in the form of letters, chanting from the crowds, banana throwing, monkey chanting, songs, and not just one or two but thousands singing racial abuse, chants, that kind of stuff, and letters through the post
Cyrille Regis, ex-WBA and England Striker Racism in sport #history of racism 1880 2013 1914 1918 1960 1990 First black professional footballer in the UK Albert Johanneson West Indian Cricket team Tony Collins – the first black team manager Didier Drogba The FA Strategic plan for 2011 – 2015: Developing football for everyone! Show racism the Red Card Initiator: Governing body Aims:
to familiarize young people with causes and consequences of racism,
to develop good relationships and respect the differences between people regardless of ethnicity,
to help young people be ready to play active role as citizens in growing multi-cultural society Sanctions: no special sanctions Communication tools:
FIFA Laws of the game Season 2012-2013, Law 12
The Football Offenses Act, 1991
The FA Rule: Conduct The FA Rules Initiator: Governing body Aim: define and control the appropriate behavior of players, coaches, officials, administrative staff and supporters Sanctions: no regulated sanctions, each case is discussed independently and inconsistently Communication tools: signed or anonymous letter with the following facts:
Where and when did the incident(s) take place?
Who said/did what to whom?
How close were you to the incident and did you have an unobstructed view?
etc. Reporting discrimination Initiator: Governing body Aim: define and find people around the stadiums, which abuse players or other supporters Sanctions: unclear Rooney Rule Description: Criticism: Sport is about competition and competence, not about quota
"Rooney rule would be a kind of racism"
Arsene Wenger Rooney Rule requires at least one black or ethnic minority candidate to be interviewed for a head coaching or senior operation role for a team Since 2003 the number of black NFL head coaches: 4% to 22% Hit racism for six Initiator: group of cricket fans Aims:
sign a Declaration Against Racism in Cricket,
adopt anti-racist policy,
rid cricket of racism,
removal of double standards and stereotyping Communication tools:
ECB web-site Sanctions: no sanctions ECB One Game Initiator: Governing body Communication tools:
ICC Anti-Racism Code
Anti-racism policy statement
Signs and posters
For players (Suspension)
For ICC members (warning, fines, bans)
For spectators (removal, criminal charges, bans) Racism on the field John Terry vs Anton Ferdinand Luis Suárez vs Patrice Evra Sanctions: 4 matches ban Sanctions: 8 matches ban Racism on the field Implications: No Racism Here (Long, 2000) None so blind as will not see
There have always been black players; therefore it can’t be a racist game
Everyone gets abused, so what’s the difference if someone is called a black bastard
You have got to learn to take it … to be one of the lads you have got to take a joke First Indian cricketer to play for England Sir Frank Worrell - first black West Indian captain in cricket Summary statement Sport and anti-racism campaigns should work together to develop and implement strategies for: Accessibility
Valuing cultural diversity
Opportunity for all
Respecting all people Recommendations to Sport Managers Awareness and acceptance of racism existence
Lobby for legislation
Attracting people from minority ethnic groups to work as coaches, committee members, officials
Developing consistent sanctions for racial abuses within different sports
Use the experts (Sporting Equals) An assessment of anti-racism in British football (Garland, Rowe, 1999) "The kind of antiracist initiatives may actually be counter-productive and attract greater levels of racism to an environment where the problem is relatively rare" ICC Policy Statement Spectators shall not engage in any conduct, act towards or speak to any player, umpire, referee or other official or other spectators in a manner which offends, insults, humiliates, intimidates, threatens, disparages or vilifies that other person on the basis of that other person’s race, religion, color, national or ethnic origin Spectators are reminded that racially abusive comments and actions will result in ejection from the ground and possible further action such as criminal prosecution, identification byway of photographing and/or capturing by video camera of the images of such persons and life-bans being imposed on such persons ICC Ticket Statement Denying racism in football still exists: "The culture of the game is such that all players can expect a certain amount of hostility from time to time and many, including some black players, do not distinguish between racist abuse and any other kind of criticism" SA-1980 ENG vs PAK 1992 Devon Malcolm