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Coping Response Inventory (CRI)
Transcript of Coping Response Inventory (CRI)
Coping with challenges in life
can be described in terms of cognition, responses, strategies, tactics, and/or behavior. Coping includes covert and overt efforts used by individuals to deal with demands that are perceived to be taxing or exceeding one's own resources (Folkman & Lazarus, 1991). Simply
defined, coping is the thoughts and actions people use to manage
stressful demands in
Issues in Assessing Coping Responses
Coping refers to what an individual
thinks or does
in order to manage stressors.
Appraisal is the individual's
of what he/she may think or do when presented with a stressor (Folkman & Lazarus, 1991).
Appraisal of a stressor precedes the initiation of coping responses.
The Coping Response
The Coping Response Inventory (CRI)
was developed by Rudolph H. Moos in 1993 (updated in 2004). Moos constructed the CRI as an instrument for identifying the resources currently available to individuals for managing stress and evaluating the focus and method of coping. The CRI emphasizes resources rather than deficits (Moos, 1993). The CRI is available in two forms:
CRI-A (Adult form) and the
CRI-Y (Youth form:
1. Think of different ways to deal with the problem.
9. Try to step back from the situation and be more objective.
17. Go over in your mind what you would say or do.
25. Try to anticipate how things will turn out.
33. Try to find some personal meaning in the situation.
41. Try to anticipate the new demands that will be placed on you.
2. Tell yourself things to make yourself feel better.
10. Remind yourself how much worse things could be.
18. Try to see the good side of the situation.
26. Think about how you are much better off than other people with similar problems.
34. Try to tell yourself that things will get better.
42. Think about how this event could change your life in a positive way.
Psychometric Properties of the CRI
The CRI has demonstrated adequate reliability. According to data provided by Moos (1993), the internal consistency of its scales gives overall alpha coefficients between 0.59 and 0.74 (males: between
0.61 and 0.4). The CRI-A and The CRI-Y appear to have adequate construct, discriminate, and predictive validity (Hernandez, Vigna, & Kelley,
2010, and Moos, 1993
Coping Response Inventory (CRI)
Assessing an individual's coping strategies and their impact on psychological functioning can be difficult due to the fact that several components of the coping phenomenon occur internally.
Many coping measures rely on retrospective self-reporting which can impact the internal validity of the results of an assessment and the conclusions that may be drawn from them (Mitchell & Jolley, 2012).
The type of stressor encountered and characteristics (e.g., gender, age, personality, etc.) also affect assessment of coping responses (Moos, 1995).
Resources can be internal and/or external. Resources are available in varying levels in various situations and/or time periods (Schwarzer & Schwarzer, 1996).
an individual's characteristics (e.g., optimism, self-efficacy, level of intelligence)
social supports (e.g., family, friends, co-workers)
Stability is the pattern of similar coping responses an individual uses at various points in time.
Individuals may need different coping responses during the course of a stressful demand (e.g., cancer).
Generality refers to the consistency of an individual's coping responses in different situations (e.g., anxiety for an exam, bereavement).
Dimensionality is associated with the purpose, meaning, or function of a coping response. The number of responses is endless and requires some form of classification (e.g., problem-focused, emotion-focused, primary control versus secondary control).
Guyton & Murphy
Texas A&M University-Central Texas
Coping Vs. Appraisal
Components of The CRI
- Describe a problem or difficult situation that the individual has had to deal with during the last 12 months
- 10 items
- Each item has 4 response options scored 0-3:
(0 = no; 3 = yes, fairly often)
- Provides information about how the individual appraises the described problem
- 48 items
- Each item has 4 response options 0-8:
(0 = not at all; 8 = fairly often)
- Items constitute 8 scales designed to measure coping strategies
- The first 4 scales evaluate coping styles based on the approach to the problem:
Logical Analysis - Positive Reappraisal
Seek Guidance/Support - Problem-Solving
- The final 4 scales evaluate coping styles based on avoidance strategies:
Cognitive Avoidance - Resigned Acceptance
Seek Alternative Rewards - Emotional Discharge
- The first two indices in each domain reflect cognitive coping responses
- The second two indices in each domain reflect behavioral coping responses
Approach Coping Scale Items
Seeking Guidance and Support
3. Talk with your spouse or other relative about the problem.
11. Talk with a friend about the problem.
19. Talk with a professional person (eg. doctor, lawyer, clergy).
27. Seek help from persons or groups with the same type of problem.
35. Try to find out more about the situation.
43. Pray for guidance and/or strength.
4. Make a plan of action and follow it.
12. Know what has to be done and try hard to make things work.
20. Decide what you want and try hard to get it.
28. Try at least two different ways to solve the problem.
36. Try to learn to do more things on your own.
44. Take things a day at a time, one step at a time.
Avoidant Coping Scale Items
5. Try to forget the whole thing.
13. Try not to think about the problem.
21. Daydream or imagine a better time or place, than the one you are in.
29. Try to put off thinking about the situation, even though you know you will have to at some point.
37. Wish the problem will go away or somehow be over with.
45. Try to deny how serious the problem really is.
Acceptance or Resignation
6. Feel that time will make a difference: that the only thing to do is wait.
14. Realize that you have no control over the problem.
22. Think that the outcome will be decided by fate.
30. Accept it; nothing can be done.
38. Expect the worst possible outcome.
46. Lose hope that things will ever be the same.
Seeking Alternative Rewards
7. Try to help others deal with a similar problem.
15. Get involved in new activities.
23. Try to make new friends.
31. Read more often as a source of enjoyment.
39. Spend more time in recreational activities.
47. Turn to work or other activities to help you manage things.
8. Take it out on other people when you feel angry or depressed.
16. Take a chance and do something risky.
24. Keep away from people in general.
32. Yell or shout to let off steam.
40. Cry to let your feelings out.
48. Do something that you don’t think will work, but at least you are doing something.
History of the CRI
Moos worked with others to
develop a conceptual framework to
better understand how an individual's
personal and social resources aid them in assessing and dealing with stressors. The basis of their work is "the idea that people are active agents who shape their life context; in turn,
life context factors affect individuals' health
and well-being" (Moos, 1995). Moos
helped develop the following model
to display these ideas along with
the suggestion that reciprocal
feedback occurs at
Moos aligned with the
belief that coping responses could
be classified by two conceptual approaches:
of coping and
- an individual's orientation and activity in response to a stressor; approach the problem and attempt to resolve it, or try to avoid it or focus on managing the emotions associated with it
- a response entails either mostly cognitive or behavioral attempts
Interpretation of Results
Results from the CRI can be used to help individuals recognize and/or heighten their coping resources. This
may aid in reducing the impact of stressors in their life.
Specific uses of the CRI include:
- treatment planning for stress-related problems
- treatment planning for rehabilitation programs
- an instrument for identifying individuals who may be
at-risk or in need of counseling or medical attention
- an educational planning and assessment instrument
- a research instrument to investigate coping
resources in various populations and to
provide a standardized measure in
(Moos, 1993 and 2011)
Close to 50% of people who have been
impacted by a life crisis report some positive outcomes (Moos, 1995). Change is necessary and stress is inevitable. These challenges can provide an opportunity for personal growth.
Tools such as the CRI can help clinicians understand how stress along with one's coping responses occur and how this impacts health and well-being.
Identifying coping skills aids in creating more effective treatment plans that will help
individuals manage and overcome
Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Coping and Emotion. In A. Monat & R. S. Lazarus (Eds.),
Stress and coping: An anthology
(3rd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Hernandez, B. C., Vigna, J. F., & Kelley, M. L. (2010). The youth coping response inventory: Development and initial
Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66,
1008-1025. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20697
Mitchell, M. L., & Jolley, J. M. (Eds.). (2012).
Research design explained
(8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Moos, R. H. (1993).
Coping response inventory-adult form professional manual
. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment
Moos, R. H. (1993).
Coping response inventory-youth form professional manual
. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment
Moos, R. H. (1995). Development and applications of new measures of life stressors, social resources, and coping
European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 11,
Moos, R. H. (2011).
Life stressors and social resources inventory coping response inventory: Annotated bibliography update
ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Center for Health Care Evaluation Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University.
Schwarzer, R., & Schwarzer, C. (1996). A critical survey of coping instruments. M. Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds.),
. New York: Wiley.