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The Cardiovascular System

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Amilyn Thurston

on 6 April 2014

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Transcript of The Cardiovascular System

Purpose-circulates blood to all parts of the body by the action of the heart. Provides the body's cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes waste and carbon dioxide.
The Cardiovascular System
The Cardiovascular System
Chambers of the Heart

Right Atrium:upper right, receives blood from all body parts except the lungs

Right Ventricle: lower right, recieves blood from right atrium through the ventricular valve & pumps through a semilunar valve
Left atrium:upper left, receives blood rich in oxygen as it returns from lungs via left and right pulmonary veins

Left Ventricle:lower left, receives blood from left atrium through an atrioventricular valve & pumps it through a semilunar valve to a large artery (aorta) and then to all other body parts except lungs
Heart Valves


Aortic Semilunar Valve:allows blood to flow into the aorta and prevents return to the ventricle (Between left ventricle & aorta)

Tricuspid Valve:allows blood to flow into ventricle & prevents the return to right atrium(guards the opening between right atrium & right ventricle)




The Heart
Four-chambered, hollow muscular pump that circulates blood throughout the cardiovascular system.
Divided into 3 layers/lining:
-Endocardium:inner lining
-Myocardium:muscualar middle layer
-Pericardium:outer membraneous sac


Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Additional Structures of the Cardiovascular System




Pulmonary Semilunar Valve:allows blood to flow from the right ventricle through pulmonary artery to lungs (Between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery)

Bicuspid Valve: allows blood to flow to the left ventricles and closes to prevent its return to the left atrium (Between left atrium and and ventricle)
Blood Pressure and Heartbeat
Disease Examples of the Cardiovascular System
Blood flows through the heart, to the lungs, back to the heart, and on to the various body parts
The Flow of Blood


Arteries
Branching system of vessels
Deliver oxygenated blood from right and left ventricles of the heart to all body parts
Elastic tubes that recoil and carry carry blood in pulsating waves
Used to feel the heartbeat when pressed firmly
Radial Artery is the most common for measuring heartbeat


Vessels that transport deoxygenated blood from peripheral tissues and from the lungs to the heart
Thin-walled and has valves to prevent backflow of blood
Process of removing blood from vein is called venipuncture
Veins


Capillaries
Microscopic blood vessels with single-celled walls that connect arterioles with venules
Blood passing through gives up oxygen and nutrients and picks up waste and carbon dioxide at this point
Exchange oxygen between arteries and veins


pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the vessels
Measured with a sphygmomanometer along with a stethoscope
pressure cuff interrupts the circulation in the brachial artery
Blood Pressure


controlled by autonomic nervous system
generated by specialized neuromuscular tissue of the heart that is capable of causing cardiac muscle to contract rhythmically
The pacemaker of the heart, the SA node, is located in upper wall of the right atrium and contains a network of Purkinje fibers (atypical muscle fibers) that are considered to create the heartbeat impulses
Heartbeat


Angioma: Blood vessel tumor
Arteritis: Inflammation of an artery
Arrhythmia/Dysrhythmia: Irregular heartbeat
Bradycardia: Slow heartbeat
Cardiac Arrest:Loss of effective heart function
Disease Examples


Disease Examples (Cont.)
Claudication: Dull cramp due to narrowed arteries
Heart failure: The heart loses ability to pump blood efficiently
Murmur: Soft blowing/rasping sound heard by auscultation especially near the heart
Full transcript