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Transcript of Australia's Geography
Australia's Political Features
Divided into territories and states
Territories: Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory
State: Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland
Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific Ocean
Great Barrier Reef
Great Victoria Desert
Great Barrier Reef
World's largest coral reef
Lies off the northeast coast of Queensland
Over 1,200 miles long
Contains an amazing variety of marine life,
including the world's largest collection of coral
400 types of coral
1,500 species of fish, and 4,000 mollusks (snails, clams, octopi, and squid)
rare species like the sea cow and large green turtle
- When the earth's crust moved millions of years ago, it created the Great Dividing Range
- Coral Sea islands are scattered over thousands of miles of ocean - no one lives on the islands except for weather specialists
- An important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef
Part of the Pacific Ocean
Off the northeast coast of Australia
-A monolith, which is a single large rock sticking out of the earth
- A huge reddish rock in the center of Australia
- Appears reddish because its iron content "rusts" at the surface
- Nearly 12 stories height and almost 6 miles wide
- Aborigines call it "Uluru," which is its official name
Great Victoria Desert
- Stretches through the states of South Australia and Western Australia
- Receives only 8 to 10 inches of ranfall a year, and it never snows!
- Some grasslands in the desert along the sandhills and salt lakes
- First Europeans to cross the desert named it after British Queen Victoria in 1875
- 160,000 miles long and a protected wilderness area
-Very few Australians live here because its too hot and dry
- Both a continent, country, and island
- Lies about 2,000 miles southeast of Asia
- In the southern hemisphere
- Known as the land down under
- Now....Where do Australians live?
- Coastal areas are the most populated
- Most people live along the east coast
- Most populated city is Sydney, New South Wales
- Another populated city is Brisbane, Queensland
- Nearly 80% of Australians live in Urban areas
- One of the world's most urbanized countries
- 70% of all Australians live in cities of more than 100,000 people
- Sydney has 3.5 million people
- Melbourne has about 3 million people
- Northern part of Australia is closest to the Equator
- Tropical climate and is warm-to-hot all year
- Gets more rain than any other part of the country
- Winter: wet and cool
- Summer: hot and dry
Desert is the largest part of Australia
- Little rain falls here
- Most of this area gets less than 10
inches of rain per year
- Only the southeast and southwest corners have a temperate climate
- Summers aren't too hot
- Winters aren't too cold - Similar to Georgia
- Climate in these regions is the one that Australian's prefer the most
- Most Australians live along southeastern coast
- Outback refers to the dry interior
- Mainly open countryside, including vast expanses of
- Few widely scattered settlements in the Outback
- Many of them grow up around mining operations
- Australians mine for coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, zinc, oil, and natural gas
- Lead the world in the production of diamonds, lead, and
bauxite (used to make aluminum)
- Minerals are often found in areas that are difficult to reach
- Roads are expensive to build, but they are needed to
get workers and equipment to remote locations
- Expensive equipment is needed to move minerals to
populated cities to trade
- Land is good for farming
- Enough areas with good land and rainfall to make farming an important business in Australia
- Farmers here produce more than Australians can consume, so the food is traded and sold around the world
Australia's Total Population: 22,328,800 people
Canada's Total Population: 34, 108,752 people
USA Total Population: 311,591,917 people
1. Where do most Australian's live? Why?
2. Describe Australia's climate.
3. What important business is done in the outback?
- The only country on the world's smallest and flattest continent
- Has Earth's oldest and least fertile soils
- Only Antartica receives less rainfall
- Commonwealth of Australia also includes Tasmania, an island
south of the mainland
-Varies across the continent
- Its south of the equator, seasons are opposite of North America
- Summer: December through March
- Winter: June through September
Where People Live
- China is Australia's large neighbor to the north
- Australia's major supplier of natural resources is China
- 1/2 of Australia's iron ore goes to China
- China has a strong influence on Australia's economy
- Australia's location makes it expensive for people to visit from other countries because of its remote location in the southern hemisphere.
- Foreign tourists mostly come from New Zealand
- Foreign tourists create about 1/4 of Australia's $81 billion tourist industry
- Opposite seasons as the northern hemisphere
- In the nondesert regions, Australian's grown many grains.
- Most of the natural resorces in the outback lie below the continent's surface
- Australia has exported nearly $400 billion worth of metals, minerals, and fuels in the past 20 years.
- Natural Resources account for one- third of the country's economy.
- In the mid- 1900s Australia experienced a gold rush. This caused many people from England, Ireland, Germany, and China to move there.
Questions to Consider
1. What country benefits Australia's economy the most?
2. If you were to move to Australia, where would you want to live based on trade?
3. How does having natural resources benefit a country's economy?