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ParenteralMedications

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by

Tangela Hales

on 11 January 2016

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Transcript of ParenteralMedications

Intradermal
Gauge-25 or 27 guage
Length 1/4 to 1/2 inch.
Dosage given is small, usually less than 0.5 ml.
Angle is 5-15 degree
DO NOT ASPIRATE
Subcutaneous
Gauge-25-30
Length-3/8" to 1"
Angle-45 to 90 degree
Usually no more than 1 ml
DO NOT ASPIRATE!
DO NOT MASSAGE!
ROTATE SITES!!!
Intramuscular
Preparing Medications for
Administration by Injection
Mixing Medications in One Syringe
Parenteral Medications
Tangela Hales, PhD, RN

Needleless Systems
Needle Safety
Administering an Injection
Route of administration.
The needle length is selected based on the depth of the tissue into which the medication is to be injected. Ex: A longer needles is required for an intramuscular injection than for an intradermal or subcutaneous injection.
Viscosity of the solution. Thicker meds need larger diameter.
Quantity to be administered.
Body size.
Type of medication. Example: Insulin, Tuberculin.
DO NOT recap needles!!!!!
Ampules
A flask that contains a single dose of medication.
Medication is removed after its thin neck is broken.
If you cut yourself on the ampule, discard the ampule and medication to prevent the risk of small glass pieces falling into the ampule.
Vial
Soft metal cap that can be removed easily.
Multi-dose.
Wipe with alcohol each time medications is removed from the vial.
Inject air into the vial
to facilitate removal.
The amount of air injected is the same as the desired quantity of the solution.
Ensure the drugs are compatible.
More than two drugs are not recommended.
Injection Sites
Equipment
Into the dermis for the purpose of instilling a substance such as a serum, vaccine,or skin test agent. Ex. TB skin test.
Bevel up.
Longest absorption time of all routes
Administered into the adipose tissue layer just below the dermis and epidermis.
Insulin
Heparin (most commonly used site)
Various sites may be used
Abdomen absorbed most rapidly.
Avoid sites that are bruised, tender, hard, swollen, inflamed, or scarred. (could affect absorption rate).
Insert needle with a firm quick approach.
Deliver medications through the skin and subcutaneous tissues into certain muscles.
Muscles have larger and a greater number of blood vessels than does subcutaneous injections.
This route is used to administer drugs such as antibiotics, hormones, and vaccines.
Various sties may be used for IM injections.
Avoid any site that is bruised, tender, hard, swollen, inflamed, or scarred.
Ventrogluteal
Vastus Lateralis
Dorsogluteal
Procedure
Z- track method
Used to inject medications that are irritating to the tissues.

Deltoid Muscle
Needle Safety
One-Hand Method
Oooops!!!!
Sharps Container
Administering Parenteral Medications
Administered by injection.
An invasive procedure.
Performed using aseptic technique.
Requires certain skills.
Has a rapid effect.
Preventing Infection during Injection
Swab with an alcohol swab using a circular motion starting at the center and moving out in at least a 2-5cm radius.
Make sure that it dries!!!
Preventing Infection During Injection
Avoid letting needle touch contaminated surface (edge of ampule, hand, needle cap or table top, patient's hand).
Swab tops of vials with an alcohol swab.
If needle is contaminated-CHANGE IT!!!!
If you touch your hand on the needle- CHANGE IT!!!!
Angles for Injecting Medications
Chose correct syringe size.
Follow drug administration protocols.
Administer to patient in appropriate site.


Landmark for Ventrogluteal Site
Recommended site for vaccines for adults and may be used for children between 1 and 18 years of age for vaccine administration.
R/F damage to the radial nerve and artery.
Should be limited to 1 ml of solution.
No longer recommended for IM injection.
Has been associated with significant injury, including pain and temporary and permanent paralysis, caused by damage tot he sciatic nerve.
Z-Track
Z-track technique is recommended for all IM injections to ensure medications does not leak back along the needles and into the subcutaneous tissue.
Pull the skin down or to one side about 1" and hold in this position with the nondominant hand. Insert the needle and inject the medication slowly. Withdraw the needle steadily (about 10 secs) and release the displace tissue to allow it to return to its normal position.
Aspirate by puling the plunger back before injection to ensure that the medication is not injected into a blood vessel.
The End
Parenteral - outside the intestines or alimentary canal; COMMONLY means the injection route only.
The larger the gauge of a needle, the smaller the diameter.
The preferred site for infants.
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