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Worlds of North and South

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Anna Ward

on 31 August 2016

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Transcript of Worlds of North and South

How geography, economy, transportation, and society of the North and South helped lead to the Civil War.
The Worlds of North and South
I. Geography
A. The North
II. Economy
A. Southern
A. the North
A. Southern Society
1. the climate
a) 4 seasons!
b) hot, humid summers & cold, snowy winters
2. natural features
a) New England coast was jagged, with bays and inlets.
b) Perfect for harbors.
a) Shipbuilding
b) The hillsides were full of wood. Perfect for timber.
c) timber sent to cities to build ships
d) the states of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey had broad rivers. These rivers deposited rich soil - perfect for farming.
4. Deforestation
a) the clearing away of forests
B. The South
1. the climate
a) mild winters and
b) long, hot, humid summers
2. natural features
a) wide coastal plains
b) swamps and marshes; perfect for growing rice and sugarcane.
e) some southerners harvested timber in the mountains, or gathered fish, oysters and crabs in Chesapeake Bay
1. southern economy was based on agriculture
a. they were proud of it
b. agrarians
1. a person who favors an agricultural way of life and government policies that support agricultural interests
2. example is Thomas Jefferson
c) Indigo was grown above the swamps
d) tobacco & corn grew further inland
c. many agrarians were
1. a large area of land where crops were grown through the labor of workers, usually slaves who lived on the land.
d. while some white southerners owned plantations, MOST worked their own small farms
g. because of this, slave sales began to decline...
2. "King Cotton"
e. 1790's: Europe didn't want to pay such high prices for rice and tobacco.
f. Planters tried cotton - too difficult to harvest and clean.
a. Eli Whitney: Yale grad; wanted to solve the cotton "problem"
2. a hand-operated machine that cleans seeds and other unwanted material from cotton.
b. because of the cotton gin...
2. By 1850, cotton plantations reached from the Atlantic Coast to Texas.
3. as cotton spread, so did slavery.
Majority of White Southerners made their living off the land.
1. Ruled by inventiveness
2. late 1700's: inventors started to make machines to make products more quickly & cheaply
3. Industrial Revolution!
a. the dramatic change in economies brought about by the use of machines to do work by hand.
b. Began in England in late 1700s and spread to America and the rest of Europe
Growth of Industry
Francis Cabot Lowell visits England.
saw how mill operators used machines to spin cotton
memorizes the design
after returning to Massachusetts, builds first American textile factory
hires "Lowell Girls"; single women who work 12-15 hours Mon-Sat
inventors used steam engines to power machinery.
Eli Whitney develops "interchangeable parts"
African American Life
D. By 1860 the value of manufacturing in the North was 10x greater than the South
C. Southerners began to worry that northern interests may threaten the Southern way of life.
1. how will factory owners transport goods fast and inexpensively?
1. "internal improvements"
2. John C. Calhoun said "Let us build the republic together!"
3. The National Road - tied new western states w/ the East
1. river travel is faster & cheaper
2. 1807: Robert Fulton showed how great steamboats were
3. 1817: Erie Canal is built - first all-water link between farms on the Central Plains & East Coast Cities
4. Clipper Ships - cut ocean travel time in half
1. inventors developed steam powered locomotives
2. faster than steamboats, tracks could be laid ANYWHERE
3. by 1860, 30,000 miles of railroad tracks linked Northern factories
map work
Look at pages 262-263.
write a sentence or two comparing North and South in each map.

just include it in your notes, but label it Mapwork 5/1.
B. The South
1. most of the rail lines were in the North.
2. People in the South relied on the slow moving, wide rivers.
3. New Orleans became one of the South's biggest cities because of the Cotton Boom
5. By 1860, the South only had 10,000 miles of rail lines to compete with the North's 30,000
4. Southerners often opposed bills in Congress that would use federal funds for "internal improvements"
1. wealth is measured
by land and how many humans you enslave.
2. the slave economy kept the South from progressing economically or culturally
3. southern whites:
a. wealthy group of plantation owners (minority)
b. small landowners; owned 1-4 slaves
c. poor white with no land
4. Southern blacks:
a. small amount were free
b. majority were slaves
B.Northern Society
1. with hard work, ordinary people could acquire wealth and influence.
2. 7 in 10 northerners lived on farms in 1860
3. BUT by 1860, 38 of the 50 largest urban areas were in the Northeast
4. populations of cities grew as well.
a. cities were filthy! b. garbage and disease everywhere.
5. Northern Blacks:
a. Since the Revolution, all Northern states had abolished slavery
b. but African Americans in the North were not treated as equals
c. most worked as laborers and servants
a. an immigrant is a person who moves from one country to another. The movement is called
b. 1845-1860: 4 million immigrants arrived (most from Ireland and Germany)
c. some anti-immigrant feelings.
3. Trade
b) this is a HUGE problem in the North Eastern United States
1. US exports of cotton earned more money than all other exports combined!
a. Between 1790 - 1850 number of slaves grew from 500,000 to 3 million
a. a rich class of people, made money off the new industries
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