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Ultimate Freud Little Hans Lesson
Transcript of Ultimate Freud Little Hans Lesson
And the Conclusions of the Little Hans study Kept- playing with his widdler and mum threatened to cut it off! How did his phobia begin? Dad told Freud: ‘Little Hans is afraid a horse will bite him in the street, and this fear seems somehow connected with his having been frightened by a large penis’. Freud noted that Little Han’s fear of horses had developed just after what? Experienced Anxiety from Dreams about losing his mother,
and around the same time he had been warned about playing with his widdler. How did Freud argue that Little Hans had directed his libido at his mother? Hans refers to his phobia of horses as his ‘NONSENSE’.
Hans’ father made a connection between the phobia and Hans’ interest with his widdler, so what did he say to him? If you don’t put your hand to your widdler any more, this nonsense of yours will soon get better’. Hans’ anxieties and phobia continued and he was afraid to
go out of the house because of his phobia of horses. What Kind of Horses did Little Hans have a phobia on? When Little Hans became particularly scared of
horses falling down, what did his father ask him? Father: When the horse fell down did you think of your daddy?
Hans: Perhaps. Yes. It’s possible. Hans also developed an interest in toilet functions, especially ‘lumf’ (a German word indicating faeces). What was the name of his Imaginary Friend? Was called Lodi after ‘saffalodi’, which
is a German sausage. Hans’ father
pointed out to Hans that saffalodi
looked a bit like lumf, and his
son agreed. Hans’ fear of the horses started to Decline and Freud believed that two final fantasies marked a change in Hans and lead to a resolution of his conflicts and anxieties. What was the first fantasy? What was the second fantasy? Hans’ fear of the horses started to decline and Freud believed that two final fantasies marked a change in Hans and lead to a resolution of his conflicts and anxieties. Support for Oedipus Complex?
Is there a fantasy that supports it? According to Freud the cause of Little Hans’ phobia was related to his Oedipus complex. How? Think of Horse, Dad, Displacement. Evaluation of Conclusions Strengths
Weaknesses Case studies, such as this one carried out by Freud, are particularly useful in revealing and treating the origins of abnormal behaviour. In fact some forms of psychotherapy rely on building up a long and detailed case history as an aid to understanding and then helping the client. The case study provided a very in-depth picture producing lots of qualitative data. In fact Freud argued that it was the ‘special relationship’ between Hans and his father that allowed the analysis to progress and for the discussions with the boy to be so detailed and so intimate. This case study only relates to one individual and we therefore have to be careful generalising from the findings. We have no way of assessing how typical Little Hans is. Therefore we have to ask whether this study is unique to the relationship between Little Hans, his Father and Freud or whether we can generalise it to other cases. Ecological Validity? This case study is really Freud's interpretations of Hans' father's interpretation of his son's own phobia. Freud only saw Little Hans on one or two occasions. It can be argued that this leads to a drastic reduction in objectivity, particularly as the father (Max Graf) was a supporter of Freud’s ideas. Is the Data Valid? 1) Strengths of Procedure
2) Weaknesses of Procedure
3) Evaluation of Explanation (Seperation Anxiety)
4) Evaluation of Explanation (Classically conditioned fear
5) Evaluation of Explanation (Andocentric? Ethnocentric?) Group Task. A major problem with Freud's arguments is that other explanations can be found for Little Hans' phobias.
For example, Bowlby, who was also a psychoanalyst, argued that Hans' phobia could be explained in terms of attachment theory, specifically Seperation Anxiety.. Bowlby believed that most of Hans' anxiety arose from threats by the mother to desert the family. In fact Hans' parents did eventually split up. A further, and simpler, explanation for Hans' phobia is that he was classically conditioned to fear horses (Vygotsky). Or in other words, Hans witnessed a horse fall and collapse in the street. Hans then generalised this fear to all horses. A major problem with Freud's explanations are that they are androcentric and ethnocentric. Ethnocentric?
The idea of the Oedipus complex is ethnocentric because Freud assumed that all boys must experience this stage. However Freud was writing about a particular group of people at a particular period of time.
Many cultures including our own do not have families consisting of a Mother and Father living together in one home. Freud, for example, argued that through the Oedipus complex boys identify with their fathers and this established their sexual identification and if this process could not take place, Freud considered that the young child would be likely to grow up homosexual. Evidence does NOT support this argument. Androcentric?
This study describes the Oedipus complex which is of course unique to boys. Girls, Freud argued, develop penis envy, which later becomes converted into a desire to bear children as the young child begins to recognise that it is impossible for her to develop a penis of her own. I am sure you can make up your own mind if this is sexist or not. So what have you learnt?