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it is EMBEDDED into the system it controls. ".. encapsulated by the system it controls." Baskiyar, S., IASTED-NPDA, Tsukuba, Japan, 2002. "Dedicated Systems." Timmerman et al., Real-Time Magazine, 98-3, 1998. An ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM transforms the magnitude of a physical
unit into a digital number EMBEDDED MEASUREMENT SYSTEM. - the merging of an embedded system and an electrical measurement system - the computer is a microcontroller and the measurement system is encapsulated by the hardware it controls The cost of the signal conditioning electronics may exceed the cost of the controller hardware. ".... may considerably increase the power consumption." Roger Allan, Electronic Design, Aug 18, 2005. "... excessive use of signal conditioning introduces the chance of errors." Jason Sachs, EmbeddedSystemsBlog, 2011. Direct interfacing Time measurements Signal recovery Direct X-interfacing Typicial I/O-pins have 3-state capability Direct (resistive) sensor to controller Bierl (1996), Cox (1997), Merrit (1999) Direct (capacitive) sensor-to-controller Richey (1997), Reverter et al (2004), Reverter and Casas (2008), Gaitan-Pitre (2009), Reverter and Casas (2010) Direct bridge-to-controller Custodio et al, (2001) Direct analog-to-controller Bengtsson, (2012c) Quasi digital Time-to-Digital Converter Analog Digital High-resolution TDCs Vernier Time stretching Nutt, R., Rev. Sci. Instr., 39, (1968). Binary signal with analog information in signal period or signal width. Reverter and Pallas-Areny, (2005) Microcontroller-based time stretching Bengtsson, L., Rev. Sci. Instr., 83(4), (2012) Analog Lock-In Dual phase detector LIA Digital LIA Momo F., et al, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., vol 14, pp 1253-1256, 1981.
Wang, X., Rev. Sci. Instr. 61(7), (1990), pp. 1999-2001.
Li, G, et al, Rev. Sci. Instr., 82, 095106, (2011) Digital LIA "Dual Phase" Li et al, (2011). Microcontroller-based LIA solution Bengtsson L., Rev. Sci., Instr., vol 83(4), 075103, 2012. Bengtsson L., Rev. Sci. Instr., vol 83(4), 075103,2012.