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The Behaviourist School

Learning Theory Sessions
by

Stuart Mitchell

on 27 November 2013

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Transcript of The Behaviourist School

the behaviourist school
WE DON'T NEED NO EDUCATION
WE DON'T NEED NO EDUCATION
WE DON'T NEED NO EDUCATION
WE DON'T NEED NO EDUCATION
WE DON'T NEED NO EDUCATION
WE DON'T NEED NO EDU
The Four Contexts of Operant Conditioning
Positive reinforcement
 
(Reinforcement)
: occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus that is appetitive or rewarding, increasing the frequency of that behavior.

Negative reinforcement
 
(Escape)
: occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus, thereby increasing that behavior's frequency.

Positive punishment
 
(Punishment)
: occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.

Negative punishment
 
(Penalty)
: occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a stimulus, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
Extinction
This is caused by the lack of any consequence following a behavior.

When a behavior is inconsequential (i.e., producing neither favorable nor unfavorable consequences) it will occur less frequently.

When a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced with either positive or negative reinforcement, it leads to a decline in that behavior.
Operant conditioning to change behaviour
State Goal (aims for the session)
Monitor Behavior (log conditions)
Reinforce desired behavior (give reward for proper behavior)
Reduce incentives to perform undesirable behavior
Criticisms in educational context
Despite the demonstrated efficiency of awards in changing behavior, their use in education has been criticized by proponents of 
self-determination theory
, who claim that praise and other rewards undermine intrinsic motivation. 
B.F. Skinner and the Teaching Machine
Full transcript