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Module Revision

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by

Carrie Ijichi

on 29 November 2016

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Transcript of Module Revision

Module Revision
Communication
"The process in which
actors
use
specifically designed signals or displays
to
modify the behaviour
of
reactors
" (Krebs & Davies, 1993)
Behavioural Control
A
Fixed Action Pattern
is an inflexible behavioural response triggered by a
sign stimulus
which acts on
innate releasing mechanisms
What other terms are "actors" and "reactors" known by?
Signals can be visual, auditory, chemical or tactile
The signal used depends on the sensory capabilities of the animals involved and the environmental conditions
Honest signalling is the result of
physical constraints
on the
production of the signa
l such as stamina or physical size
Other individuals can "code-break" to deceitfully use the signals of others
Development of Behaviour
Animal must develop a behavioural reportoire which is adapted to the environment in which they live
Offspring may be
precocial
or
altricial
at birth
Behaviour patterns may be relatively simple
innate
responses or more complex and
learned

Define & give examples
What is the difference?
Imprinting
is the process by which a young animal becomes attached to a
maternal figure
or
future mating partner
What is the term for each of these types of imprinting?
Behavioural development is a result of BOTH
nature & nurture
Why?
Give me examples of each
Give me examples
Can you remember any examples?
Give me an example
Perception of cues is determined by the sensitivity of
photo
,
mechano
,
sound
,
chemo
,
thermo
,
electro
and
magneto
receptors
Tell me what each of these receptors detects
Behaviour may be controled by
rhythms
such as circadian or circannual
What are these? Give me an example
If an animal changes its behaviour over time when the environment is constant, something in the animal itself must have changed- this is
motivation
Give me examples of what might cause an animal to become more or less motivated
Learning
"A
change in the brain
which results in
behaviour modified for longer then a few seconds
as a
consequence of information acquired
from
outside the brain
" (Fraser & Broom, 1997)
Classical conditioning
is the association between a
stimulus & resulting events
Operant conditioning
is the association between an
action & resulting events
Extinction
is the loss of a learned behaviour pattern when no longer appropriate or reinforced
Spontaneous recovery
is the process by which an extinguished response recovers its strength after a rest period
Latent learning
occurs without any obvious reinforcement or overt, immediate response
Insight learning
is "the rapid apprehension of solutions to problems" (Barnard, 2004)
Give me an examples of each of these
This lecture is an
overview
and lacks detail

Its enough to remind you of the
key concepts
to help you
direct your revision
, but NOT enough detail for you to give exam answers on

Make sure you
ask any questions
you have as this is your last chance!

Foraging
Niche specialisation
is where a species adapts to utilise a resource that has less competition and may require phenotypic or behavioural adaptations
Caching
is a crucial behaviour for trickle feeders who face periods of food scarcity but requires an excellent memory
Optimal Foraging Theory
predicts that foraging behaviour will be maximally efficient to improve fitness
However, risk of predation often forces animals to adopt sub-optimal foraging in an effort to reduce their vulnerability
Give me an example
Multiple foraging strategies can be maintained in a population though
frequency dependent selection
if both traits are equally successful
on average
Give me an example
Give me examples
Full transcript