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past perfect

intermediate level

simon friend

on 12 September 2018

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Transcript of past perfect

Punched kicked
He had punched Alex, then kicked him. (A)
Alex had been punched, then kicked. (P)
Talked danced
(Simon and Brazilian girl)
Argued fought
(Simon and Brazilian girl)

I felt really tired when I took the train to work
yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party
the evening before.

I came to Australia because I had….

I dumped my ex because…

I chose embassy because…

I fell in love recently because the guy/girl had…
Use 3 is the so-called hypothetical past. We're talking about things that never happened.

I wish I had fixed my umberella. (but I didn't)

If only I had known the answer to that question. (but I didn't)
Hypothetical past
NO COUNTRY for old men:
1st section
That bullet has been ejected from a gun.
The cowboy picked up a bullet. It had been ejected from his gun. He put it in his pocket.

That dog has been wounded!
The cowboy walked through the dessert, he saw a dog. It had been wounded.

Those Mexicans have been shot!
The cowboy found a crime scene. It was filled with dead Mexicans. They had been shot.
Passive cont.
Present perfect often goes with present simple

Past perfect often goes with past simple
Use this information to we write the below sentences:
The computer guy chat online
The computer guy go to a nightclub
Dave:  Yesterday was an absolutely awful day!  
Ken:  Really?   
Dave:  Yeah!  I woke up late.  By the time I got out of the house, I had spilled coffee on my shirt and realized I didn't have any clean ones.  So I put on a shirt that I had worn a few days before.  On the way to the station, I realized that I had forgotten to lock the door, so I ran back home.  At work, my boss yelled at me because I hadn't finished the report for the 10:00 meeting with the head of marketing.  And that was only the morning...
Had you eaten sushi before you came to QLD?

Had you been to a rock concert before you were 15?

Had you Kissed a foreigner before you came here?

Had you met an Aussie before you came here?

Had you kissed a girl/boy before you turned 16?
Have you ever worksheet
4. When I had eaten (1), I got a stomachache (2) and took some medicine (3).
a. 1,2,3 b. 2,3,1
c. 3,2,1 d. 3,1,2

5. I went to bed (1) after I'd taken a bath (2) and brushed my teeth (3).
a. 1,2,3 b. 2,3,1
c. 3,2,1 d. 3,1,2

2. John sat at his computer (1) and thought about his day (2). He had got up late (3), and his boss had threatened to fire him (4)
a. 1,2,3,4 b. 3,4,1,2
c. 3,2,1,4 d. 4,3,2,1

3. When we got to the theatre (1), the concert had started (2) and all the seats had been taken (3).
a. 1,2,3 b. 2,1,3
c. 3,2,1 d. 3,1,2
Past Simple
is sometimes used to show that 2 past actions have occurred at the same time.

I talked at school and ate lunch.

And sometimes used to show that two past actions happened at different times.

I talked at school before I ate lunch.

Past perfect
used to show that two past actions happened at different times.

I had talked at school before I ate lunch.
I had punched Sam before I stole his money
After I had punched Sam, I stole his money
I stole Sam’s money after I had punched him
Before I stole Sam’s money, I had punched him
Simon had eaten breakfast before he ate lunch
After Simon had eaten breakfast, he ate lunch
Simon ate lunch after he had eaten breakfast
Before Simon ate lunch, he had eaten breakfast

Now try this info

I punch Sam (1st)
I steal Sam’s money
Frank had called me before I went to school
After Frank had called me I went to school
I went to school After frank had called me
Before I went to school Frank had called me

(What happened first in each sentence?)
Which sentence is different from the others?
We ………………………………………………… (play) football for half an hour when it started to rain.
I …………………………………………………. (study) English for a short time when the electricity went off.
She ……………………………………………… (do) her homework before you came in.

Now do WS!
Yellow work sheet sec. E
It had been raining
subject+had+been+verb with -ing
PAST PERFECT continuous:
The Past Perfect is used with expressions such as: "I wish", and "if only” to express regret.
I wish I hadn't gone there.
If only had learnt how to sing.
I wish I had taken piano lessons.
I wish I hadn’t started smoking.
I wish I hadn’t spent so much money on CDs.
Dissatisfaction with the past
Simon: How’s the beer?
Junya: Terrible. It has been left out in the sun!

David: how was the BBQ last night?
Junya: Terrible, the beer had been left out in the sun…
At Waxys
Taka: This steak sux.
Essam: It has been undercooked

At the beach:
Ellena: Hey Essam how was dinner last night
Essam: Terrible the steak had been undercooked
And in the PASSIVE – very common!
Bruno: Hey, Douglas. How’s it going?
Douglas: Good man. This is my new girlfriend, Malu.
Bruno: Oh yeah we’ve met before. We were in Simon’s class together.
Douglas: “Oh yeah”
Nat: Hey Bruno, how was Melbas last night.
Bruno: Yeah good I danced a lot and kissed heaps of girls. Oh, and I saw Douglas’s new girlfriend. Guess what. I had already met her.
Nat: who was it?
Douglas: That blond girl from Simon’s Class.
At the BBQ:
Simon: “This beer sux!”
Shigeru: “That’s because you’ve left it in the sun for half an hour”.
Kota: “Hey Shigeru, how’s it going?”
Shigeru: “Good, Just practicing my English, with this Brazilian girl. Her name is Val”.
Kota: “Hi Val”
Val: “Hi”
Kota: How was the BBQ last night. I couldn’t go.
Shigeru: “Terrible, Simon had left the beer in the sun, so it was warm”.
The man looked familiar…
The match was over…
My wallet isn't here…
The match is over…
That man looks familiar…
My wallet wasn't there…
Now you try:

My wallet isn't here (now). I've left it behind.
The match is over (now). United have won.
That man looks familiar (now). I've seen him somewhere before.

My wallet wasn't there (then). I'd left it behind.
The match was over (then). United had won.
The man looked familiar (then). I'd seen him
somewhere before.
Present Perfect vs Past Perfect?
give a’s one set of cut outs for the whole group. A’s all in a group with their backs to board. B’s all in a group preparing and reading random combinations of sentences from the completed sheet in past perfect while a’s position the cut outs.
Together read the sentences on WB and make several Past perfect sentences:

A Man in a suit talked to the police
The police kicked open a door
The women in black fought all the police
The woman in black talked on the phone
Matrix Work sheet

Frank had called me before I went to school

(The computer guy had heard a knock before he answered the door)

After Frank had called me I went to school
I went to school After frank had called me
Before I went to school Frank had called me

Computer guy hear knock
Computer guy answer door

(Which sentence is 1st? Where do we put had?)
Matrix work sheet
They ……………………………. (go) home after they ………………………….. (finish) their work.

She ………………………………….. (just / go) out when I called her.
Yellow worksheet sec. a – d.

Students show their partner a mixed up list of 10 things they did yesterday or at the weekend and for their partner to put them in order using questions like “Had you already left the office when you phoned your wife?”
11. Your partner’s day backwards (the Memento game)Starting when their partner went to bed, students see how many true sentences they can make about things they did before that, working backwards slowly, e.g. “When you went to bed, you had already brushed your teeth” “That’s right” “When you brushed your teeth, you had already had a shower” “Wrong! I had a shower after I cleaned my teeth. My turn.”
What had you done by...
The age of 3? ________________________________________
The time your plane arrived in Australia? _________________________
Life time achievements
6. Mike had dinner (1), then went to sit in the living room (2). He was feeling miserable (3). It had been an awful day (4).
a. 1,2,3,4 b. 3,2,1,4
c. 4,3,1,2 d. 3,4,1,2

1. When I arrived at John's (1), we drank the wine (2) he had opened (3).
Which order?
The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we had built.

When she went out to play, she had already done her homework.

My brother ate all of the cake that our mum had made.

The waiter brought a drink that I had not ordered.
Although she had considered post graduate study, at the end of the year she decided to look for a job.

He had enjoyed the party, OR He'd enjoyed the party.
They hadn't gone to bed until late.
Where had he put his wallet?
yes no question
Had he eaten the fish before we came?

Using *had* just helps the reader or listener make sense of the order of actions…

SO… When we use *past simple* with “after”, “before”, “then” etc – it’s just the same as using Past perfect…
Nothing changes when we take away *HAD*
I’ve deleted *had* - what has changed in the meaning?

Frank called me before I went to school
After Frank called me I went to school
I went to school After frank called me
Before I went to school Frank called me
How has the meaning changed?
called me before I went to school
After Frank
called me I went to school
I went to school After frank
called me
Before I went to school Frank
called me
They are all the same!
Hugged kissed
He had hugged her, before he kissed her. (A)
She had been hugged, before she was kissed (P)
Active / passive
What do you regret?

Write down your three biggest regrets and share them with the group
Keep the conversation going:
Really? Wow!
Follow up questions
And you?
Next topic
Now you do it! 
At diner:
WAITER: “That’s $49 please”.
YUKA: “ DAM! I’ve lost my wallet”

At the beach:
Simon: “How was dinner last night”
YUKA: “Terrible… I went to pay and realized I’d lost my wallet”.
More examples
I had danced at sin city (1#)
I vomited on the street (2#)


I vomited on the street (2#)
I had danced at sin city (1#)

I had danced at sin city (1#)
I vomited on the street (2#)

I vomited on the street (2#)
I had danced at sin city (1#)
When before after
1) Sarah left for work
2) We arrived at the house
3) We made a cup of tea and waited.
When ____________________,
Sarah_____________________ so
we _________________________.
Stories worksheet
By the time he arrived, the lecture had already started.
You may find that people (especially native speakers) don't use the Past Perfect very often. For example, they might say:
After I washed my car, I went to fill up .
“The unnecessary tense”
Tazz was very tired. He had been running.

I could smell cigarettes. Somebody had been smoking.

Suddenly, my car broke down. I was not surprised. It had not been running well for a long time.
Sub +had + a past participle
PRESENT PERFECT (before now):

PAST PERFECT (before then):
to explain a past situation:
REVISION slide show!
Grammar practice!
Write it down
It's important...
Harder then the BOND one..
BY the time.....
What had you done by the time you arrived at school today?

What had you done by the time you had turned 16?

What had you done by the time you left the house?
What had you NEVER done before you came to AUSTRALIA?
had never
I had never seen....
Yuko had never drunk....
Tiago had never eaten....
The part of the sentence with
always happened first. And had is always in the same place…
“Had called”
Re write the Frank sentences with this info:
Simon eat breakfast --Simon eat lunch
Now try this one:
Get married (2nd)
Have kids (1st)
Click for answer
Read the sentences. Choose the answer which shows the order the actions happened
a. 1,2,3
b. 2,1,3
c. 3,2,1
d. 3,1,2
watch start of movie:
Use this information to write the below sentences:
The computer guy had heard a knock
The computer guy answered the door

Frank had called me before I went to school
After Frank had called me I went to school
I went to school After frank had called me
Before I went to school Frank had called me
PAST simple vs PAsT PERFECT:

Are we talking about
day 1
day 2
day 3
Past perfect vs Past perfect cont:
Grammar explanation:
Grammar practice:
DO private study!

(in private study section!)
In pairs look at the worksheet and make sentences -- your partner says "true" or "false"!
Only for crazy ambitious intermediate students...
This is because "after" or "before" tell the listener which action happened first. Still, keep in mind that such sentences are usually used in conversations rather than other situations. Therefore, try to avoid them. (Especially in tests where you can lose points because of this.)
When we want to explain a
We do this
We use
Had you eaten dinner, when you went to bed?
When you went to bed, had you eaten dinner?
Had you cooked dinner, when you ate it?
When you ate dinner, had you cooked it?
After + past perfect
before + past simple
#1 + when/b4 + #2
2# + after + 1#
after + 1# + 2#
before+ 2# + 1#
Now it seems like I saw someone drop the glasses and picked them up with out telling the person....

if we delete --HAD-- I seem like even more of a "bad guy"
Full transcript