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Transcript of Conservation
people practice conservation so environment can provide for needs and needs of things
without conservation, all resources (air, animals, energy, minerals, plants, soil, water) would be Poaching Poaching- killing the animals that are protected and laws have been passed to make hunting or killing those animals illegal
Poachers- illegal hunters who don't follow laws/rules
Poachers kill all kinds of animals/game: tigers, bears, rabbits, squirrels, ducks, geese, etc.)
poaching affects animal populations Conservation by King Midas Poaching leads to..... selling the animal killed. They sell anything of animal that is valuable (skin, bones, body parts) Tigers are poached for their body parts. The body parts are used for medicines. Hunting out of season= poaching
Purpose of hunting season= to protect animal populations & breeding cycles
Poaching involves capturing animals & selling them.
people capture reptiles/ birds in South America so they can be sold in pet stores around the world The well known animal poached is the elephant. In order to get it's valuable ivory, it must be killed. For example, in Zimbabwe, Africa, hundreds of elephants are killed each year. Sadly, it is very hard to stop poachers. What Has Been Done
(Conserving wildlife!) Organizations (like the United Nations) try to track and stop poachers.
Public wildlife refuges have been set aside for preservation of animals.
largest game/animal refuge in North America= Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada.
largest game/animal refuge in U.S.= Yellowstone National park
Us Fish and Wildlife Service directs nation's game conservation program Pollinator Decline Pollination How The US Fish and Wildlife Service Helps Conserve Pollinators More Info. on Pollinator Decline: A Recent Study Pollinator decline- population of pollinators (like bees) going down
Pollinators pollinate 75% of our flowering plants & 75% of our crops.
hummingbirds, bats, bees, beetles, butterflies, flies =pollinators
Without pollinators, wildlife would have fewer berries, seeds, fruits, vegetables, etc.
CHOCOLATE & COFFEE depend on pollinators, too. pollination- pollinators moving from flower to flower transferring pollen grains
pollen fertilizes plants , allowing them to produce seeds and grow fruits
plants cannot breed without pollinators
other crops pollinated: apples, squash, almonds a recent study of status of pollinators in North America by National Academy of Sciences found that honey bees and other pollinators are declining in result of:
Disease (caused by parasites & pathogens)
degradation work with partners to recover endangered and threatened pollinator plants
provide butterfly trails and gardens
work with other countries to conserve and restore pollinators (like bats) endangered species- a group of animals that look very similar to another and live in the same manner that are threatened w/extinction or danger extinct- gone FOREVER Humans clear natural habitats for cities and roads.
then animals have nowhere to live
animals may be poisoned by garbage
animal population=declining -If we don't help them they will become extinct Extinction Info. Wildlife Conservation and What Has Been Done! Endangered Species & Species Extinction North America
3,626 species South America
2,280 species Africa
4,902 species Europe
1,978 species Asia
7,067 species Oceania
3,187 species Antarctica 50 species A world without pollinators? Causes Clearing forests has made thousands of animals endangered. 25% of animals hunted to extinction
about 30% died when habitats destroyed
4 out of 10 extinctions were caused by animals from one part of world being introduced to new regions at end of 19th century, governments defending habitats by creating nature reserves (like Yellowstone) Resources http://www.poachers.com/
Hoare, Ben & Jackson Tom. Endangered Animals. New York: DK Publishing, 2010
Burnie, David. Endangered Planet. Boston: Kingfisher Publications, 2004
http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2014101,00.html Fish and game laws keep fisherman and hunters from killing too many animals.
Conservation works by finding ways of making money by preserving a habitat.
Eco-tourism- shows tourists wonders of nature without damaging it & money it makes pays for conservation Invasive Species Invasive species- ones that are not native to an ecosystem and which causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health
Invasive species and plants have many impacts on fish and wildlife resources- degrade, change native habitats, compete with wildlife & are harmful
invasive species- plants, animals, other organisms
threaten nature, plants, animals, ecosystems
Control costs and environmental damages add up to millions of dollars per year because of them.
If we don't stop them, these conflicts would get worse. Alien Species??? Invasive Species Info. introductions of invasive species- caused by human actions
while most invasive species were introduced to Us, some are natives in one part of country but serious pests in another part of country
problem plants that are native but invade habitats, range lands, & agricultural fields) More About Poaching Examples of Invasive species: Zebra muscles- introduced to Great Lakes in 1988, have been spread throughout Great Lakes & other water systems in US, compete with other species for food, damage structures-boats, clog water intake pipes
Purple Loosestrife- wetland herb that spread into wetlands in northeast & Midwest, form strands that replace plants needed for wildlife What Has Been Done Federal agencies & private organizations work to prevent the introduction of invasive species that are a problem. How You can Help Prevent Invasive Species and Conserve Things! avoid growing purple loosestrife/ invasive plants
If you see anybody selling invasive plants or seeds, let them know your concern.
avoid buying & planting mix of seeds (especially wildflowers)
never transport water, animals, plants from one water body to another
protect your pets & yourself from diseases
don't release other pets
don't release aquarium fish in any natural body of water Coral Bleaching corals have symbiotic relationship with zooxanthallae- tiny marine algae
coral bleaching occurs when relationship between coral host and zooxanthallae -which give coral much of color, breaks down
without zooxanthallae, tissue of coral of the coral animal appears transparent & coral's white skeleton is revealed
if conditions turn to normal, corals can regain their zooxanthallae & return to color & survive
but, this stress causes decreasing of coral growth, reproduction, & increase of disease
bleached corals die if stress persists Causes main cause of coral bleaching: heat stress (result from high sea temp.)
temp. increases of only one degree Celsius for 4 weeks -can trigger bleaching events
if these temps. persist for more than 8 weeks or more= corals die
other causes: low salinity, pollution The Great Barrier Reef Coral Bleaching 1998 -50% reefs suffered bleaching, sea temps. were highest ever recorded
2002- 60% bleached - largest coral bleaching ever recorded
in both events- 5% coral reefs were damaged 5 Ways to Conserve Corals and Coral Reefs 1. when you visit coral reefs- help keep it healthy by respecting guidelines, recommendations, regulations, & customs
2. volunteer for reef cleanup (when on vacation)
3. don't pollute, throw garbage or leave trash on beach
4. support conservation organizations -many are coral reef programs (your support will make a BIG difference!)
5. conserve water - less water used= less runoff & waste water finds its way back to oceans "Coral reefs are incredibly important to ocean health,'' says Stephanie Wear, the Nature Conservancy's coral expert. "But if we don't act, we could lose 70% of reefs worldwide by the middle of the century.'' How You Can Help! You can volunteer! Organizations depend on volunteers in the US and abroad. http://www.fws.gov/international/how-you-can-help.html life in wild has many dangers for animals:
-attacks by predators
-other animals hunting
-must work hard to find enough food Hunting, making farmland, overfishing, destroying natural habitats, pollution causes extinction/species to be endangered ----examples:
-blue fin tuna- gone down 80% by overfishing
-saiga- endangered, becoming extinct because of grassland habitat became farmland and hunters kill them for horns for medicine, 90 million years ago- 2 million saiga, now- 50000
We have cut down half of the forests on Earth.
Tropical rainforests where most species live have been felled. Passenger pigeons- people hunted them for meat, hit by diseases from Europe, struggled to find homes as forests got cut down, Martha- last passenger pigeon http://ezinearticles.com/?Animal-Poaching-is-Still-a-Serious-Problem-in-Africa-As-Rhinos-Fight-For-Their-Survival&id=3474864
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/Coralreef.shtml Healthy Great Barrier Reef Less Coral Reefs, Less Homes Many fish live in coral reefs.
If coral reefs die, fish will not have homes. a.k.a. Angelica Latina damaged, wasted, or destroyed What You Can Do! We can protect animals by taking care of the places where they live/conserve habitats
respect native species
respect wildlife laws: don't collect wild plants/animals, (illegal to capture and keep wildlife as pets) obey rules in natural areas, & do not enter closed/ restricted areas for the protection of wildlife
report suspected violations of environmental laws plant a pollinator garden
build a bee box
avoid pesticide use (weed killer) How You Can Help! Conserve. Thanks for watching! Conserve!