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United Nations Operation in Somalia
Transcript of United Nations Operation in Somalia
Period: March 1993 - March 1995
(Unified Task Force)
Battle of Mogadishu
End of the
Q & A
UN Operations in Somalia
Hunger is their strongest weapon.
Name: Dino Lu
Global Cooperation Department
"Horn of Africa"
Population: about 10 million
Capital City: Mogadishu
Drought with sparse vegetation
History of Somalia
years of warfare among rival clans caused the big scale of famine
- annual rainfall is less than 20 inches
Before the late 19th century, Somalia was fairly stable without intervention from Europe.
After the Berlin Conference (1884)
"Scramble for Africa"
In 1887, Great Britain proclaimed Somalia as a British protectorate and named it British Somaliland.
The colonial period of Somalia was started.
In 1910, the British abandoned the interior their Somaliland.
Italy seized the opportunity and took over many of the interior regions.
After WWII, Italy was forced to relinquish its colonial possessions in Africa.
Somalia became a UN trust territory under Italian administration
On July 1, 1960, Somalia was finally granted independence
However, various rebel military groups rose up against the country's leader Siyad Barre
Since 1991, Somalia had descended into anarchy totally.
(Federal Republic of Somalia)
The colonial time didn't help Somalia prosper at all. It only left Somalia worse than it had been before, a lawless nation with violent clans trying to all gain control.
In the early 1990’s up to 80% of internationally provided food was stolen. Meanwhile, between 1991 and 1992 it is estimated that over 300,000 Somalis died of starvation.
UNITAF (Operation Restore Hope)
Period: April 1992 - March 1993
(United Nations Operation in Somalia I)
Security Council resolution 751
Result: Unsuccessful due to the UN’s inability to deliver food and supplies.
Situation in Somalia had further deteriorate
Period: December 1992 - May 1993
Security Council resolution 794 (1992)
(United Nations Operation in Somalia II)
Objective: to establish a safe environment for the delivery and distribution of humanitarian assistance
Participants: 25,000 United States combat troops deployed by George H.W.Bush and the U.N. military forces
to assist the people with setting up a representative government.
Security Council resolution 814 (1993)
After President Bill Clinton inaugurated, he scaled down the U.S. presence in Somalia, and let the U.N. officially took over the operation, naming this mission UNOSOM-II
Objective: to promote nation building within Somalia;
to escort deliveries of humanitarian supplies to distribution centres in the city
to provide protection and security for UN personnel, equipment and supplies;
Objectives: to monitor the ceasefire in Mogadishu;
to disarm the Somali people
to restore law and order, improve the infrastructure
Result: Operation failed
Mohamed Farrah Aidid, the most powerful of the warlords in Somalia.
In June, Aidid's militia ambushed and slaughtered 24 Pakistani soldiers.
In late August, America's elite soldiers Delta Force, Army Rangers and the 160th SOAR were sent to Mogadishu to assist U.N. military.
Contributors of Military and Civilian Police Personnel:
Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe
149 military personnel
3 international staff
2 local staff
Then, U.N military started to arrest Aidid and restore order, but the operation was interfered by civilians.
This was the longest, most bloody battle for U.S troops since the Vietnam War.
Two weeks later, President Clinton withdrew Delta force and the rangers from Somalia. The hunt for Aidid was abandoned.
What began as a peacekeeping mission to provide relief to the starving people of Somalia essentially ended with a firefight during the Battle of Mogadishu.
After all of the U.S. troops were withdrawn in March 1994, 20,000 U.N. troops were still in Somalia.
By the late Spring of 1994 all of the remaining U.N. troops were withdrawn, ending UNOSOM-II.
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boutros_Boutros-Ghali#UN_career
The UN Failures, http://www.somaligov.net/TheUNFailures.html
Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned, http://www.dodccrp.org/files/Allard_Somalia.pdf
Operation Restore Hope, http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his135/Events/Somalia93/Somalia93.html
Battle of Mogadishu, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mogadishu_(1993)
On October 3, 1993 Task Force Ranger raided the Olympic Hotel in Mogadishu to search for Aidid.
This led to a 17-hour battle in which 19 U.S. soldiers were killed and over 1000 Somalis died.
What factors do you think caused the failure of the UNOSOM?
Whether the U.N. military should interfere in Somalia?
The United Nations underestimated the militia force of local factions
The false leads made the blind military actions
Low educational level of local people
In Somalia, killing is negotiation
It's a civil war, without victory, there can be no peace.
Table of Contents
Motivations of UNOSOM
- Geographical and Political Conditions of Somalia
- History of Somalia
U.N. Operations in Somalia
- UNOSOM-I & UNITAF (Briefly Introduction)
- Battle of Mogadishu
- collaboration-action of the U.S & U.N.
- request by Somalia
- request by the Secretary-General