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Desiderius Erasmus

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Alex Herler

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of Desiderius Erasmus

Erasmus of Rotterdam ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1483 Erasmus’ parents died from the plague when he was 17. 1486 Erasmus' guardians forced him to enter the monastery of Emmaus. Although it was one of the best monasteries, Erasmus later called the time he spent there the two lost years. Erasmus called this act the greatest misfortune of his life. 1491 The Bishop of Cambrai chose Erasmus as his secretary and also as his traveling companion to Italy. Even though the voyage did not happen, Italy remained a place Erasmus really wanted to visit. This event was important because if he had not been chosen as secretary, he would have had to stay in the monastery, which was not something he wanted.
This impacted history deeply in a few ways. First of all, if the Bishop had not selected Erasmus out of all the students there, Erasmus probably would not have later done most of the things he did later on. Erasmus became a significant contributor to humanism and, most of all, to the reformation. Second of all, if he had stayed in the monastery, he probably would not have gone to England and had the fortune to meet his English friends who helped him gain the title of Doctor of Divinity. Lastly, if he had remained in the monastery, he would not have realized all the things the Church was doing wrong. 1492 Poverty forced Erasmus into a consecrated life. He took vows as a religious cleric regularly at the canonry of Stein, in South Holland. He did this every day for nearly a year. Erasmus was ordained a priest by the Bishop of Cambrai. This was the same priest who chose Erasmus as his secretary. Even though he was made a priest, he did not work as a priest for long. 1496 Erasmus was sent to Paris to complete his studies. At the time, the university was one of the top schools. The university had an early influence on the Renaissance. While attending the university, he became good friends with the Italian humanist Publio Fausto Andrelini. 1498 Erasmus traveled to England where he made some English friends. Among them were Colet, More, Latimer. Colet showed Erasmus how to get rid of the differences between the ancient faith and humanism. A lot of these English friends helped him throughout his life. 1500 Erasmus published a basic “Adagia” which was called the Collectanea Adagiorum. An Adagia is a collection of Greek and Latin proverbs. Many of those proverbs are still used today. For example, “Like father, like son” was one of them. 1502 The Enchiridion Militis Christiani appeared. In it Erasmus described the nature of true religion and true piety, but with comments that angered the Church. He saw the leaders of his Church abusing their powers, and he planned to drive the popes and cardinals and bishops back to the earlier, purer days of the Church. He made fun of Pope Julius II and accused him of corruption. He saw the Church leaders wanting too much power and, in this book, wrote that they denied Jesus in that desire: "It is always a source of amazement to me that popes and bishops so indiscreetly wish to be called lords or masters when Christ forbade his disciples to be called either." 1505 Erasmus found Lorenzo Valla’s “Annotations” to the New Testament. He found them in the monastery in Brussels. Valla's Annotations were an example of his remarkable language skill and intellectual thinking. He used manuscripts of the Greek New Testament to answer questions about certain bible passages. Those passages seemed corrupt or unclear in the traditional Latin Bible. This is important because the Annotations contained his first statement concerning the Scriptures. Valla especially stressed the need to have a new translation and respect for the literal sense. 1506 With help of his English friends, Erasmus was able to travel to Italy where he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity in Turin. 1508 Erasmus published an expanded version of “Adagia” called the Adagiorum chiliades. He added many more proverbs to the collection. 1509 On the way out of Italy, Erasmus published the satire known as “The Praise of Folly” where he pointed out the foolishness of the Church. 1516 Erasmus published a book, De ratione Studii, where he talks about the education of children, which was surprising, since he had never before talked about children. Erasmus published an edition of the Latin original of the New Testament, "Novum Instrumentum omne". Not only did Erasmus write it, but he also added comments and ideas. He worked on this for 4 years. 1517 Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg and that heralded the start of the "Reformation". Erasmus supported the foundation of a University. It was founded by his friend Jeroen Van Busleyden of the Collegium Trilingue. The university taught Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. This Dutch University is still in use today. 1518 At first, Luther wanted to work with Erasmus to defeat the Church, but then he realized that he and Erasmus wanted completely different things. After some time, Luther commented on Erasmus: "My liking for Erasmus declines from day to day. The human is of more value to him than the Divine. The times are now dangerous, and I see that a man is not a more sincere or a wiser Christian for all that he is a good Greek or Hebrew scholar." Desiderius Erasmus
Timeline (1466-1536) One of Erasmus’ best works published was the Colloquia Familiaria. It is a textbook for studying the Latin language and is an introduction to the purely natural formal training of the mind. 1526 Erasmus issued an expanded form of the Colloquia Familiaria and many copies were made all over Europe. 1521 Martin Luther attended the Diet of Worms in 1521. Emperor Karl V called for a discussion to allow Cardinal Alexander, who was one of the Pope's ambassadors, to examine Luther and to find out if he was a heretic. They concluded that Luther was a heretic and therefore, Luther was banned from the Holy Empire. The Edict of Worms, signed by Emperor Charles V, declared Martin Luther a heretic and placed him under an imperial ban. It also specified that all Luther's books were to be burned. 1523 Erasmus moved to Basel, where the presence of numerous humanists, including Ulrich Zwingli, seemed to assure him a peaceful existence. Ulrich Zwingli presented his 67 Theses at the Zurich Disputation before hundreds of educated men. These theses included such topics as allowing clergy to marry, the mass being a celebration not a sacrifice, etc. His presentation was successful and reform was widespread. 1524 After many years of claiming he did not know about Luther’s teachings, Erasmus finally had to claim he knew about Luther because Luther was growing more popular. By doing this, Erasmus had to either stand with or against Luther and he chose to stand against Luther. He published On freedom of the Will, in which he spoke out against Luther and his followers. Von Hutten, a former friend of Erasmus, wrote his "Expostulatio cum Erasmo", in which he described all the weaknesses and faults of Erasmus. 1525 Luther responded to "On freedom of the Will" with a book called The Bondage of the Will. 1526 William Tyndale published an English language New Testament in Worms, after a narrow escape from Johannes Dobneck who had organized a raid on Tyndale's secret printing press. The Bibles were then smuggled into England and distributed. 1529 The Reformation made rapid progress in Basel where it took a form Erasmus greatly detested. As a result, he moved to Freiburg. by: Alex Hoerler, Henry Tyndall and Ryan McGlinn Bibliography:
http://www.everypainterpaintshimself.com/images/sized/gallery_images_new/Portrait_of_Erasmus_of_Rotterdam-740x925.jpg Erasmus replied to “Expostulatio cum Erasmo” from Basel with his "Spongia Erasmi adversus adspergines Hutteni". ___________________ ________________________ 1492 1492 ___________________________________ _________________________________ 1516 1516 ___________________ ________________________ 1517 1517 1518 ______________________________ ________________________ 1518 _________ 1521 ____________________________ ___________________________________ _______________________________________ 1523 1523 1523 ___________________ ___________________________ 1524 1524 _________ ____________________________ 1526 ________ ____________ 1525 _________ __________________________________________________ ___________________ ________________________ 1502 1491
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