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Transcript of Descriptive Feedback
Constructive criticism with
explanation of how to improve
Contextual statement – I liked….because….
Interactive statement e.g. a question based on the work Feedback Sandwich Reinforce the focus on redrafting and comment-only marking by insisting on seeing evidence of student self assessment on their work before you look at it. (You’ll have to allow time for this). Self assessment Comments on students’ work should act as guidance showing how the student can improve.
Develop this by asking students to write in the same way when peer assessing work. Feedback for improvement Some practical strategies for effective formative feedback to try out in the classroom
(Adapted from Mike Gershon’s Assessment for Learning Tools) Reminder prompts:
How could you make the description of the character more striking? Remember the rule about circles we talked about?
Why don’t you try using a simile to describe how he eats? What about the rule which says that the area of a circle is ∏r²?
Why don’t you use a simile to describe your character? Try ‘He gulped down his food like a pelican’. Calculate using ∏r². Multiply 27 x 27 then …
What types of feedback do you give? “The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops of feedback’.” Hattie, 1992 In closing… Effective feedback to learners:
is best initiated by the learner
focuses on the learning intention of the task
occurs as the students are doing the learning
provides information on how and why the student understands and misunderstands
provides strategies to help the student to improve
assists the student to understand the goals of the learning. Feedback… in summary Create a learning journal in which students can reflect on and review their learning. It could include plenary activities, a target setting chart, aims and goals etc Learning Journal Create time in the lesson to talk to individual students.
Have a written dialogue in the students’ book.
Use a comment tracker or target sheet to formalise the dialogue in a workbook. Feedback follow-up Use lesson time to redraft work.
This allows students time to focus on the feedback for improvement they have been given.
It also reinforces the value of the feedback and allows them to work at it in a supportive environment. Allow students time to act on feedback Comment-only marking provides students with a focus for progression instead of a reward or punishment for their ego (as a grade does).
Comments should make it clear how the student can improve.
Plan activities and work with feedback in mind – let the design assist the process. Comment-only marking Findings from Clarke's research:
too much information in their marking which students find overwhelming and difficult to take in.
Clarke suggests that:
when giving written feedback, teachers highlight two or three successes in the student’s work and one area where some improvement is necessary. Clarke (2001) Findings from research showed that: Marks VS. Comments “Do you know what to do next?”
“What will you do if you get stuck again?” Check the adequacy of the feedback Feedback conversations are most effective when initiated by the learner.
Teacher and student should make the decision about the level of support which is needed.
Not enough, and the student is still in the dark, and doesn’t know how to improve. Too much and the student doesn’t have to try.
Ask the student what support he/she needs:
“Is that enough or do you need an example?” Students as active participants in the learning Clarke (2003) suggests three types of prompts for providing feedback, dependent on the needs of the student:
Remember, prompts need to be focused around the learning intention of the task. Types of descriptive feedback prompts How can you, as an administrator, give teachers descriptive feedback that prompts them to self-reflect on ways to improve their work? Descriptive Feedback…
“You accurately found the number of students in 4th grade who said ice cream was their favorite. You now need to divide this number by the total number of students to get the percent who said ice cream was their favorite.” Descriptive Feedback
73% Evaluative Feedback “To be effective, feedback needs to be clear, purposeful, meaningful and compatible with students’ prior knowledge, and to provide logical connections.”
“If feedback is directed at the right level, it can assist students to comprehend, engage, or develop effective strategies to process the information intended to be learnt.”
“Thus, when feedback is combined with effective instruction in classrooms, it can be very powerful in enhancing learning.” John Hattie:
Visible Learning (2009) For feedback to be effective for students, they need the following:
evidence about their present position in
relation to that goal
guidance on the way to close the gap between the two “Once students realize that information from
both teacher feedback and their own self-assessment can help them improve,
they will process material more
deeply, persist longer, and try harder.
In short, they will become more self-regulated learners.” “Achievement gains are maximized in context where educators increase the accuracy of classroom assessments, provide students with frequent informative feedback, and involve students deeply in the classroom assessment, record keeping, and communication process. In short, these gains are maximized where teachers apply the principles of assessment for learning.” Research... We are learning how to implement and model best practices around In this session… Absolum, M. (2006). Clarity in the classroom. Auckland: Hodder Education
Clarke, S. (2001). Unlocking formative assessment: Practical strategies for enhancing pupils’ learning in the primary classroom. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Clarke, S. (2003). Enriching Feedback in the primary classroom. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning. London and New York: Routledge
Tunstall, P., & Gipps, C. (1996). Teacher feedback to young children in formative assessment: A typology. British Educational Research Journal, 22 (4).
Wiliam, D. (1999). Formative Assessment in Mathematics. The Mathematical Association. Equals. Summer Volume 5, Number 2. References
“I agree with the pattern that you have
identified in the table. I am not convinced
that the rule you wrote works for all the values in the table. How could you prove this?” Descriptive Feedback
“I like how you completed the assignment.” Motivational Feedback Feedback Motivational Purpose: to encourage and support the learner Effective Purpose: to improve learning, by moving student reasoning to the next level Descriptive feedback asks the student what to do to move their reasoning to the next level. Descriptive feedback primarily tells the student how to correct their reasoning.
Purpose: to improve learning by indicating to the student what needs to be improved Descriptive Purpose: to measure student achievement with a score or a grade Evaluative Types of Feedback Descriptive Feedback Welcome Principals & Vice Principals Thursday, December 13/12 @teachingboys Laurie Foster Assessment for Learning Poster tied directly to Curriculum documents related to a rich task must be related to both the Learning Goal & Success Criteria Descriptive Feedback. We are learning how to be lead learners within our schools in regards
to Assessment for Learning; namely , Descriptive Feedback. By the end of the session, I will feel more comfortable in my learning in regards to Descriptive Feedback. "Feedback that focuses on what needs to be done can encourage all to believe that they can improve." Black, 2003 Brookhart, 2006 Stiggins, 2005 Research... What it is Praise - NOT... Definition... Feedback provides information to students and
teachers about learning. It helps to reduce the gap between the student's current level of understanding and/or performance and a desired goal. Feedback is an essential process... of seeking & interpreting evidence for use by learners & teachers to decide... where the learners are
in their learning where they need to go how best to get there "good job" Advice - "try doing ____" Judgement - "awkward" Inference - "you must have been tired when your did this." For Example... "you must have worked
very hard" "You cited 18 authors in your report. What strategies did you use to
find so many authors?" "good work" BECOMES "Do you remember when you couldn't do this exercise? What did you do to figure it out?" Criticism (turns into a question) "Where in the paragraph could you add more detail?" OR "What might be some other resources you could use to complete the project?" Just in time... Just for them... Just where they are in their learning process... Just what they need to move forward... Types ... 7/10 Effective 3 Levels of Feedback Task: ...describes how well the student performs a given task. distinguishing between correct & incorrect answers
acquiring specific information
building surface knowledge ...this feedback clarifies what the students need to DO to improve his/her performance task i.e. narrate events in the story in chronological order "Your learning goal was to structure your account in a way that the first action you described was the first thing you did. You did write the first thing first - but then it becomes muddled. You need to go through what you've written and number the events in the order of which they happened." such as, strategies students might use to detect or learn from errors
cues for seeking information
ways to establish relationships among ideas Process... ...describes the process underlying or related to the tasks i.e. teacher might suggest the following to a reader who stumbles on an unfamiliar word "You're stuck on this word, and you've looked to me instead of trying to work it out. Perhaps you can sound out the word, look it up on your tablet, or infer its meaning from the other words in the paragraph." Self - Regulation ...describes how learners can monitor, direct, and regulate their OWN actions as they
work towards the Learning Goal. fosters the willingness and capability to seek & effectively deal with feedback
to self-assess and self-correct
to attribute success to effort more than to ability
develop effective help-seeking skills i.e. teacher might promote a student's help-seeking skills & error detection skills by... "You checked your answer at the back of the book and found you got it wrong. Any idea why you got it wrong? What strategy did you use? Can you think of a different strategy to try? How will you know if your answer is correct? Good Feedback Is... Timely - it arrives when the student is still thinking about the work and while there's still time for improvement. Descriptive of the Work, not the student personally. It focuses on one or more strengths of the work and provides at least one suggestion for a next step. Don't assume that your student know what they did well & that they only need corrections or fixes. Positive - It shows how learning is a journey forward, and it's honest about both strengths to build on and weaknesses to improve. Its tone conveys to the student that the teacher thinks of him/her as an ACTIVE learner. Clear & Specific - It's specific enough so the student knows what to do next, but leaves the student with some thinking to do. Differentiated - It meets the needs of each student with respect to the current work. For some students, a reminder is all that's needed for a next step; others may need prompts or examples. Administrator 1. Begin your staff meetings with Learning Goals & Success Criteria 3. Give teachers descriptive feedback on their report cards. Teachers 2. Post your own professional Learning Goals & Success Criteria on your office door and ask for feedback from your staff. Begin with staff who are willing to join you in new learning. "You don't need to be the lead knower,
you need to be the lead doer!" @aaandy5000 to -have an open learning stance
-show that you are learning alongside them Learn the work, by doing the work... If you are going to grade or mark a piece of work, you are wasting your time writing careful diagnostic comments. "The most ubiquitous form of evaluation, grading, is so much a part of the school landscape that we easily overlook its utter uselessness as actionable feedback. Grades are here to stay, no doubt - but that doesn't mean we should rely on them as a major source of feedback (Wiggins, 2012). Success Criteria: What makes a good report card? parent-friendly language
connected to the curriculum
? Administrators to Students Conversation Observation Product What do you need to do to be successful? (Success Criteria) To the principal from the student Oral feedback to the student (2 stars & 1 wish) Parking Lot Door aware of Learning Goals & Success Criteria
students coming to you for feedback with their work
providing them with Descriptive Feedback
on a Post-It
printed not written
engagement for students
information for parents
on the door until everyone has received feedback from principal
teacher takes picture of door (monitor their journey)
all feedback from principal gets stapled into agendas and taken home In Closing... Damian Cooper
24 teachers in 2011/12
40 teachers in 2012/13 2 Assessment
Partners AFL Consultant
An active, continual process in which teachers and students work together - every day, every minute - to gather evidence of learning. Formative Assessment: } Formative
Assessment Let's Review... Edugains Thank You! Any questions?