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African Cultures

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Jennifer Toney

on 13 September 2012

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Transcript of African Cultures

Key Terms & Definitions Savannah - regions of shrub forest and a kind of rolling grassland
Mosque - Muslim places of worship
Matrilineal - relating to, based on, or tracing descent through the maternal line Islam- an idea/religion that is followed by Muslims that traveled to West Africa from Arabia
Muslims-Islam followers who spread from northern Africa to Atlantic Ocean by 711
Soninke-People of Ghana who controlled the region’s trade & built West Africa’s first empire
Malinke-East of Ghana; controlled the upper Niger Valley
Mansa Musa- The empire of Mali reached its peak in 1300 under Mansa Musa’s rule & his brother Mansa Sulayman
Soko-People who lived along the middle Niger, east of Mali built the Songhai empire IMPORTANT PEOPLE Sonni Ali- the ruler of Songhai when Mali began to decline
Askiya Muhammad- seized the Songhai throne A.D 400 West Africa's First Empire, Ghana, Arises. A.D 610 Muhammad begins teaching ideas of Isalm 1009 First Songhai State Established 1240 Mali Extands its Power 1450 Songhai Expands in West Africa TIMELINE WEST AFRICA Lay of the Land: West Africa is an immense bulge of territory bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea and on the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean.
Islam and West African Civilizations: Many ideas and goods traveled along the trade routes of West Africa. Islam, a religious idea followed by Muslims, was one of these ideas.(P.G 27)
The Lure of Gold: West Africa prospered mainly because of the gold trade. The Muslim Conquest of North Africa demanded an increase in gold in the 800’s and 900’s. By the 1300’s, as much as two-thirds of the gold coins in Europe and North Africa had come from West Africa.(P.G 27) THE EMPIRES OF WEST AFRICA The African people who lived on the southern edge of the Sahara were perfectly positioned to benefit from the growing trade in gold. They had access to both the gold from the south and the salt and other goods from the north. Their ability to control this trade increased their wealth and power and enabled them to build large empires. These 3 Great empires were:
Ghana – emerged in the A.D. 400s, West Africa’s first empire built by the Soninke, (what the people of Ghana were called) who controlled the region’s route. (P.G 27-28)
Mali – East of Ghana, the Malinke people controlled the upper Niger Valley. The Malinke conquered the Soninke of Ghana and built the empire of Mali.( P.G 28)
Songhai – The Sorko people who lived along the middle Niger, east of Mali, built the Songhai empire. By the 800s they had created the kingdom of Songhai.(P.G 28-28) Ghana’s merchants grew wealthy from the salt and gold trade. Ghana’s rulers taxed the trade and became wealthy as well. Ghana’s empire collapsed unfortunately by the early 1200s. It was hurt by frequent wars by the Muslims of the Sahara, their exhausted land, and the new gold mines that opened in Bure (located in present-day Guinea). Mali directed the gold trade from Bure, which gave them wealth and power. Their empire spread by the mid-1300s. Rulers of Mali were called Mansa. In outlying towns, traditional rulers stayed in power and managed local affairs. Many of the people, especially farmers, clung to their traditional belief in “spirits of the land,” whom they thought ensured the growth of their crops. The Sorko from the Songhai Empire fashioned canoes and fished for a living. They used their canoes to control the river and trade with peoples to the north and south, gaining both wealth and power. THE FOREST KINGDOMS OF NEW GUINEA Ghana, Mali, and Songhai arose on the wide vistas of West Africa’s savannah, an open landscape that made it easier to control large territories. However, in the forests of West Africa’s southern coast, an area called Guinea had smaller states and kingdoms, such as Ife and Benin to develop. Both the Yoruba people of Ife and the Edo people of Benin were a mix of hunters, farmers, and traders living in small village communities. Their farmland and climate enabled them to produce surplus food. The Edo people developed the city-state Benin in the 11th or 12th century. The ruler, Oba Ewuare, assembled a powerful army and built Benin into an empire. (P.G 29-30) CENTRAL AND WEST AFRICA Many central African villages were located on rivers.
They gained a living from fishing but also grew wheat and raised livestock.
The villagers had complex family structures and maintained close links to their communities.
The women took responsibility for child rearing , cooking , and they played a major role in trade. They also farmed.
The Central African kingdom of Kongo originated around 1400 in a group of prosperous villages along the Zaire River.
Tribal chiefs were almost always male and the son of the chief’s eldest daughter was the successor.
Fertile soil and abundant rainfall allowed for food surpluses. (P.G 30) SLAVERY As in other parts of the world, slavery existed in African society. Most of the people enslaved were captured in war. Some were convicted criminals.
Before Arabs or Europeans purchased slaves, they were either ransomed back to their people or absorbed into their own society.
Hard work and good luck gave enslaved Africans a chance to improve their position
Islam arrival changed African slavery
Muslims began to trade horse, cotton, and other goods in exchange for enslaved Africans captured in war.
The Gold Trade – The Akan people mined gold and traded it to the Mali empire. To increase their production, acquired enslaved Africans from Mali. The Portuguese supplied enslaved Africans to Akans in exchange for gold.
Sugar and Slavery – The introduction of sugar changed the diet of Europeans in the 1100s. Demand for sugar rose steadily. Sugarcane cultivation requires heavy manual labor. Plantation owners needed a large labor force. This encouraged Europeans to use enslaved workers and enter slave trade. When sugarcane was introduced to America, enslaved Africans were taken from their homes and shipped to America to cultivate sugarcane. (P.G 30-31) ASSESSEMENT CHAPTER 1 , SECTION 3:
AFRICAN CULTURE BY: Craig Taylor, Jennifer Toney, Kayla Beale, Khadesha Crouch, and Matthew Pullom MAIN IDEA, OBJECTIVES, &THEME Main Idea:
People in West, Central, and Southern Africa developed diverse governments and lifestyles Objective:
Describe the culture of early West African Kingdoms
Describe the lifestyles of early Central and Southern African peoples. Theme: The interaction of West African and European civilizations created changes in both cultures.
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