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Writing an Argumentative Essay: The Beginnings
Transcript of Writing an Argumentative Essay: The Beginnings
the aspects of . . . Good Writing? Bad Writing? What does the word "argue" mean to you? Damer's Code of Intellectual Conduct The Fallibility Principle Each participant in a discussion of a disputed issue should be willing to accept the fact that he or she is fallible, which means that one must acknowledge that one’s own initial view may not be the most defensible position on the question. The Truth Seeking Principle Each participant should be committed to the task of earnestly searching for the truth or at least the most defensible position on the issue at stake. Therefore, one should be willing to examine alternative positions seriously, look for insights in the positions of others, and allow other participants to present arguments for or raise objections to any position held on an issue. The Principle of Charity If a participant’s argument is reformulated by an opponent, it should be carefully expressed in its strongest possible version that is consistent with what is believed to be the original intention of the arguer. If there is any question about that intention or about any implicit part of the argument, the arguer should be given the benefit of any doubt in the reformulation and/or, when possible, given the opportunity to amend it. The Rebuttal Principle One who presents an argument for or against a position should include in the argument an effective rebuttal to all anticipated serious criticisms of the argument that may be brought against it or against the position it supports. Rogerian Argument Phases of an essay that follows Rogerian Argument The writer introduces the issue and shows that the opponent's position is understood by restating it.
The writer shows in which contexts and under what conditions the opponent's position may be valid.
The writer then states his or her own position, including the contexts in which it is valid.
The writer states how the opponent's position would benefit if the opponent were to adopt elements of the writer's position. An attempt is finally made to show that the two positions complement each other and that each supplies what the other lacks. Criticisms of Rogerian Argument Is it possible to understand all opposing viewpoints?
Should women be more understanding than men?
Is it possible to avoid emotionally connotative language all the time? How Do You Explore and Develop a Thesis? Freewrite about the topic. Use the journalist's questions. Look at your topic from different perspectives. Questions of fact involve things already known about your topic: What has already been researched? What has already been considered fact?
Questions of definition interpret these facts and place them in a larger context: What theme does your topic fit into? What are some of the key definitions that help support or refute your argument?
Questions of value ask you to make a judgment: Why is the idea you're talking about a good thing or a bad thing? Why is it ethical or unethical? Efficient or inefficient? Workable or unworkable?
Questions of policy allow you to consider specific courses of action: What exactly should be done in response to the issue? Why are old solutions either working or not working? Why should a new approach be considered? Read up on your topic. Talk to others about your topic. Writing the Argumentative Paper The Beginnings What are some of
the aspects of . . . Good Writing? Bad Writing? What are some of the definitions of the word "argue"? What goes here? The Fallibility Principle Here? The Truth Seeking Principle Here? The Principle of Charity Here? The Rebuttal Principle Here? Rogerian Argument What are the four phases of an essay that follows Rogerian Argument? What are three of the criticisms of Rogerian Argument? What are five of the ways to explore and develop and thesis? Fill in the Blanks