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Attraction and Liking: What Makes You Desirable?

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Transcript of Attraction and Liking: What Makes You Desirable?

Attraction and Liking: What Makes You Desirable?
Reciprocity of Liking
Conclusion
4 major factors in attraction and liking:

Physical attractiveness
Similarity
Reciprocity of liking
Proximity

Attraction and Liking: What Makes You Desirable?
Humans are social beings and have social needs (Maslow, 1943).

Attraction - Desire for a relationship with another person.

Liking - State/feeling that shows preference/favor (Ciccarelli & White, 2012).

Reciprocity of Liking

Similarity

Reciprocity of Attraction / Reciprocal Liking

Definition (Eastwick Heffner, 2001)

Expressions of liking
Important to maintain relationships
Verbal / non-verbal


Reciprocity of Liking

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder

varies from culture and social settings
broader women preferred in certain non-western societies (BBC News, 2004).
they indicated good nutritional statuses



Physical Attractiveness: Subjectivity

Waist-to-Hip-Ratios (WHR)
Height
Hourglass Figure

Physical Attractiveness: Body Strcuture

Definition:
how aesthetically pleasing one’s physical attributes are.
implies sexual desirability
Reference to a non-sexual context
Eg: attractive children

Physical attraction?

The science behind it all

Physical Attraction

Four major factors in attraction and liking:-
physical attractiveness
Similarity
Reciprocity of liking
Proximity



Attraction and Liking: What Makes You Desirable?

Humans are social beings.
Social need is a basic human need (Maslow, 1943).
Attraction:-
Desire for a relationship with another person (Ciccarelli & White, 2012).
Liking:–
State/feeling that shows preference/favour.


Attraction and Liking: What Makes You Desirable?

Basically:
Being unliked = bad
Being liked = good
Expressing liking = being liked

So why not just go around expressing liking?

Reciprocity of Liking

Being unliked has adverse effects on wellbeing
Eisenberger study (Boyd & Bee, 2012)
Loneliness & neglect, brain activation

Reciprocity of Liking

Being liked makes us feel good
Implies likeable qualities (Eastwick & Finkel, 2009)

Desire to be liked
Fundamental to human experience (Maslow, as cited by Floyd, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking

(Floyd, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking

(Floyd, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking

0.7 for women
0.8 to 1.0 for men (Carey, 2006)
Body Fat Distribution is determined by level of sex hormones (Carey, 2006).
~Women: Estrogen
~Men: Testosterone
Youthfulness and fertility status in women


Waist-to-Hip Ratio

Can be explained by,
facial structure and its relationship with hormones.
Facial symmetry

Physical attractiveness: Facial Features

(Floyd & Burgoon, 2009)

Sometimes expressions go unreciprocated
Sender left in compromising state
Damages relationship
Normally due to inappropriate expression

Reciprocity of Liking


It doesn’t always work.

Reciprocity of Liking

(Eastwick & Finkel, 2009)

Being liked is social gratifying
Help
Support
Care

More likely to act in ways that:
Benefit us
Reduce discomfort & harm


Reciprocity of Liking

(Floyd, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking

(Floyd, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking

Attractive women

Tall and muscular
testosterone
~growth and muscle
development
major role in reproductive functioning, signifying fertility (Master Men’s Clinic, 2012)

Attractive men

Body Structure

considered attractive as it is a sign of health (Grammer & Thornhill, 1994)
signifies good genes that ensure survival through development.


Facial Symmetry

Attractive Men

have smaller jaws and sharper chins
Oestrogen limits the growth in the lower face (Carey, 2006)
Have neonatal (childlike) faces (Khol, 2006).
Older women progressively look more masculine (Thornhill & Gangestad, 1999)
Estrogen-to-androgen production ratio changes in older women .


Attractive Women

Facial Structure and Hormones

The information provided is based on scientific studies that explain physical attractiveness in general.




Disclaimer:

Maslow, 1943

Attraction and Liking: What Makes You Desirable?

(Floyd, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking

Attraction and Liking: What Makes You Desirable?
Presenters:
Chia Pei Hui (13009717)
Magdalene Rose De Rozario (12024378)
Nicole Tan Siew Wen (11074051)
Tan Ai Jia (12074688)

Date of Presentation: 7 May 2014

Attraction and Liking:
What Makes You Desirable?

Four major factors in attraction and liking:

Physical attractiveness
Similarity
Reciprocity of liking
Proximity

(Maslow, 1943)
Physical Attraction
Definition:
How aesthetically pleasing one’s physical attributes are.
Implies sexual desirability.
Reference to a non-sexual context.
E.g. Attractive children.

(Garg, 2012)

Facial Structure and Hormones
Attractive Women

Have smaller jaws and sharper chins.
Oestrogen limits the growth in the lower face (Carey, 2006).
Have neonatal (childlike) faces (Khol, 2006).
Older women progressively look more masculine.
Oestrogen-to-androgen production ratio changes in older women (Thornhill & Gangestad, 1999).

Facial Symmetry
Considered attractive as it is a sign of health.

Signifies good genes that ensure survival through development (Grammer & Thornhill, 1994).

Facial Symmetry
Body Structure
Attractive Men:

Tall and muscular.

Testosterone
~Growth and muscle
development.

Major role in reproductive functioning, signifying fertility (The Master Men’s Clinic, 2012).

Disclaimer:
The information provided is based on scientific studies that explain physical attractiveness in general.

Physical Attraction
The Science Behind It All
Physical Attractiveness:
Facial Features
Can be explained by,

Facial structure and its relationship with hormones.

Facial symmetry.

Attractive Men

Chiselled jaws and prominent brows.
Faces are shaped by testosterone.
Communicate social dominance.
Intimidate reproductive rivals.
Attracting more mates (Barber,1995).

Facial Structure
and Hormones
Physical Attractiveness:
Body Structure
Waist-to-Hip-Ratios (WHR)

Height

Hourglass Figure

Waist-to-Hip Ratio
0.7 for women.
0.8 to 1.0 for men (Carey, 2006).
Body Fat Distribution is determined by level of sex hormones (Carey, 2006).
~Women: Oestrogen
~Men: Testosterone
Youthfulness and fertility status in women.

Body Structure
Attractive Women:

Voluptuous women.
Favored in western society.
Higher levels of the hormones estradiol and progesterone (BBC News, 2004).
Malaysian study: Breasts size preference varies according to socioeconomic status (Swami & Tovee, 2013).

Physical Attractiveness:
Subjectivity
Varies from culture and social setting.

Broader women preferred in certain non-western society (BBC News, 2004).

They indicated good nutritional statuses.

Do Opposites Attract?
Do Opposites Attract? (cont.)
Even when people who seem very different end up attracted to one another, they usually have a
great deal in common
(Baron & Branscombe, 2012).

Similarity – Dissimilarity Effect
The consistent finding that people respond positively to indications that another person is similar to themselves and negatively to indications that another person is dissimilar from themselves.

(Baron & Branscombe, 2012)


People respond to similarity – dissimilarity
in a surprisingly precise way.
Matching Hypothesis (cont.)
This may not lead to the fulfillment of our fantasies, but does provide the basis of relationships that are mutually desired (Berscheid et al., 1972).

Similarity
Similarity
Similarity
is a stronger basis for attraction
than differences.
Sometimes, but even then,
there are underlying similarities
(Baron & Branscombe, 2012).
Research Evidence
Galton (1952) and Hunt (1935) obtained correlational data on spouses and friends, indicating that they
resemble one another in many different aspects
.

But ...
Theodore Mead Newcomb (1956)

Research Evidence (cont.)
How about other kinds of interaction???

The
higher
the proportion of similarity, the
greater
the liking.

(Byrne & Nelson, 1965)

Do people seek similarity in physical attractiveness?
Matching Hypothesis
The idea that although we would prefer
to obtain extremely attractive romantic partners,
we generally focus on obtaining ones whose
physical beauty is about the same as
our own.

(Berscheid, Dion, & Walster, 1972)

Why similarity should matter in the first place?
One answer is provided by Festinger’s (1954)
social comparison theory.

Social Comparison Theory
People compare their attitudes and beliefs with those of others because the only way to evaluate the accuracy of the views and “normality” is by finding that other people agree with you.

(Festinger, 1954)

In Fact ...
No one wants to be wrong, so we tend to turn to others for
consensual validation
– evidence that they share our views.

(Haslam, 2004)

Reciprocity of Liking
Reciprocity of Liking
Reciprocity of Liking
(Floyd, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking
Being liked is social gratifying.
Help.
Support.
Care.

More likely to act in ways that:
Benefit us.
Reduce discomfort & harm.

Reciprocity of Liking
Being liked makes us feel good.
Implies likeable qualities (Eastwick & Finkel, 2009).

Desire to be liked.
Fundamental to human experience (Floyd, 2009).

Reciprocity of Liking
Reciprocity of Attraction / Reciprocal Liking.

Definition (Eastwick & Finkel, 2009; Heffner, 2001).

Expressions of liking.
Important to maintain -relationships.
Verbal / non-verbal.

(Floyd, 2009)

(Floyd, 2009)

(Eastwick & Finkel, 2009)

Reciprocity of
Liking
Being unliked has adverse effects on
well being.
-Eisenberger study (Boyd & Bee, 2012).
Loneliness & neglect, brain activation.

Reciprocity of
Liking
Basically:
Being unliked = Bad.
Being liked = Good.
Expressing liking = Being liked.

So why not just go around expressing liking?

Reciprocity of
Liking
It doesn’t always work.

Reciprocity of
Liking
Sometimes expressions go unreciprocated.
Sender left in compromising state.
Damages relationship.
Normally due to inappropriate expression.

(Floyd & Burgoon, 2009)

Reciprocity of
Liking
Reciprocity of
Liking
Reciprocity of Liking
Especially salient in romantic relationships.

Fear of rejection.

Don’t take risk of initiating romantic proposal.

(Eastwick & Finkel, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking
However, if it works out:

Development of feelings of love.
Reciprocal liking in memories of
falling in love.

(Eastwick & Finkel, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking
Reciprocity of Liking
Desire for object of affections to reciprocate.
A fantasy of selective
desire.
Theoretical approach to crushing.

(Eastwick & Finkel, 2009)

Reciprocity of Liking
Conclusion, expressions of liking
Are great ways of getting others to like you.
Suitability of expression.

Proximity

Proximity
Takes its roots in the basis of familiarity.

Mere exposure effect (Brienes, 2012).

Proximity
Works with other things (e.g. songs) as well.

Falling in love with annoying songs (Green, Bærentsen, Stodkilde-Jorgensen, Roepstorff & Vuust, 2012).

Proximity
Leon Festinger’s (1950) apartment distance study (Brienes, 2012).

Effect of distance vs. friendship.
Positively correlated.

Proximity
Physical proximity is also known as propinquity (Brienes, 2012).

References
Barber, N. (1995). The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness:
Sexual selection and human morphology.
Ethology and Sociobiology
,
16
(5), 395- 424.
Baron, R. A., & Branscombe, N. R. (2012).
Social psychology
(13th ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
BBC News. (2004, May 4).
Hourglass Figure Fertility Link
. Retrieved from
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3682657.stm
Berscheid, E., Dion, K. K., & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
,
24
, 285-290.
Boyd, D., & Bee, H. (2012).
Lifespan development
(6th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Breines, J. (2012).
My favourite unromantic theories of love
. Retrieved from
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-love-and-war/201208/my- favorite-unromantic-theories-love
Byrne, D., & Nelson, D. (1965). Attraction as a linear function of proportion of
positive reinforcements.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
,
1
, 659-663.
Carey, B. (2006, February 13).
The Rules of Attraction in the Game of Love.

Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/7023-rules-attraction-game- love.html

References (cont.)
Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. (2012).
Psychology
. (3rd ed.). New
Jersey, US: Pearson Education.
Eastwick, P., & Finkel, E. (2009). Reciprocity of liking. In H. Reis & S.
Sprecher (Eds.),
Encyclopedia of human relations
. (pp. 1333-1336). California, USA: Sage.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes.
Human
Relations,
7, 117-140.
Floyd, K. (2009). Attributions for non-verbal expressions of liking and
disliking: The extended self-serving bias.
Western Journal of Communication,

64
(4), 385- 404.
Floyd, K., & Burgoon, J. (1999). Reacting to nonverbal expressions of l
iking: A test of interaction adaptation theory [abstract].
Communications Monographs, 66
(3), 219-239.
Galton, F. (1952).
Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and
consequences
. London, NY: Horizon.
Garg, A. (2012). 
Physical Attraction
. Retrieved from http://
www.citelighter.com/science/psychology/knowledgecards/physic al-attraction

References (cont.)

Grammer, K., & Thornhill, R. (1994). Human (Homo sapiens) facial
attractiveness and sexual selection: The role of symmetry and averageness.
Journal of Comparative Psychology
,
108
(3), 233-242. doi:10.1037/0735- 7036.108.3.233
Green, A., Bærentsen, K., Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H., Roepstorff, A., &
Vuust, P. (2012). Listen, learn, like! Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in the mere exposure effect in music.
Neurology Research International, 2012
, 1-11.
Haslam, S. A. (2004).
Psychology in organizations: The social identity
approach
(2nd ed.). London, NY: Sage.
Heffner, C. (2001).
Psychology 101
. Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/
psychology101/attribution_attraction.html
Hunt, A. McC. (1935). A study of the relative value of certain ideals.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 30
, 222-228.
Kohl, J. V. (2006). The mind's eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience,
and male sexual preference.
Psychology & Human Sexuality, 18
(4), 313–369.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. 
Psychological
Review, 50
, 370- 396.

References (cont.)

Newcomb, T. M. (1956). The prediction of interpersonal attraction.
Psychological Review, 60
, 393-404.
Swami, V., & Tovee, M. J. (2013). Resource security impacts men’s
female breast size preferences.
PLoS ONE, 8
(3): e57623. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057623
Swann, W. B., Jr., Rentfrow, P. J., & Gosling, S. D. (2003). The precarious
couple effect: Verbally inhibited men + critical, disinhibited women = bad chemistry. J
ournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85
, 1095-1106.
The Masters Men’s Clinic. (2012, October 6).
Men’s Sexual Function,
Andropause and Testosterone.
Retrieved from, http://www.mastersmensclinic.com/male_sexual_function.htm
Thornhill, R., & Gangestad, S. W. (1999). Facial attractiveness.
Trends in
Cognitive Sciences, 3
(12), 452-460.

Do Opposites Attract?
(cont.)
Only in one context:

Dominance – submission paradigm in male – female interactions (Swann, Rentfrow, & Gosling, 2003).
A fundamental question is this: Is it similarity that leads to liking or is it the other way around?
Full transcript