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Chemistry -- Metals and Non-Metals
Transcript of Chemistry -- Metals and Non-Metals
1) State of Existence
Exception: Mercury is liquid at room temperature.
Metals are solid at room temperature.
Metals and Non-Metals
Physical and Chemical
Properties of Metals
Metals have a shiny surface i.e, lustre when freshly cut.
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Silver is the best.
Metals are sonorous.
Metals are usually hard. Exception: Alkali metals like K, Na, are soft and can be cut easily with a knife.
Metals are Malleable and Ductile. Gold, Silver and Platinum are the best.
7) Melting Point and Boiling Point
Metals have High melting and boiling point. Exception: Gallium and Cesium.
Metals have high tensile strength, i.e, they do not break easily.
Chemical Properties of Metals
1) Metals are Electropositive elements.
- Metals lose electrons and form +ve ions.
Na -----> Na+ + e-
2) Metals combine with Oxygen to for Basic Oxides.
2Mg + O2 ----> 2MgO
3) Basic Oxides + Water ---> Bases
Na2O + H2O ---> 2NaOH
In litmus test, the bases formed turn red litmus paper blue.
K and Na catch fire in Oxygen and to prevent oxidation they are kept in kerosene.
Surface of Metals like Mg, Al, Zn, Pb, etc are covered with a thin layer of their oxides, so no further oxidation takes place.
Mg on heating forms MgO.
Cu on heating becomes coated with black coloured CuO
Silver and Gold do not react with oxygen.
5) Reaction with Water
Na and K react violently with cold water. Evolved hydrogen catches fire.
Magnesium reacts with hot water.
Al, Zn and Fe react with steam.
Pb, Cu, Ag, Au do not react with water.
6) Reaction with Acids
Metals react with dil. HCl and H2SO4 to liberate hydrogen gas.
Metal + dil. Acid ---> Salt+ Hydrogen
When Metals react with dilute HNO3, hydrogen gas is not evolved but water is formed.
Metal+dil. Nitric Acid--->Metal salt+Water Oxides of Nitrogen Exceptions: Mg and Mn evolve hydrogen with dil. Nitric acid.
7) Reaction with Chlorine
Metals react with Chlorine to form Ionic metal chloride.
Metals lose electrons. Chlorine is need of electrons.
Ca ---> Ca2+
2e- ---> 2Cl-
2Cl- ---> Cacl2
8) Reaction with Hydrogen
Hydrogen can share or lose electrons. But active metals like Na, K and Ca force hydrogen to accept electrons to form hydroxides.
2Na + H2 ---> 2NaH
Ca + H2 ---> CaH2
Done by Damini Harshad Sheth.