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Lesson 1 Social Reform
Transcript of Lesson 1 Social Reform
Religion and Reform
revival- Religious meeting.
•People from all over came to see preachers shout, pray, sing, and weep.
•This was the Second Awakening in the mid-1700s.
•At this time a new spirit of form took hold of the U.S.
•This Spirit brought changes to American religion, education, and literature.
•People thought to improve society by forming utopias-communities based on a vision of a [perfect society.
•Most of these communities did not last, although a few groups, such as Mormons, did form lasting communities.
The Impact of Religion
•Revivals made men and women eager to reform their lives and the world.
•People would do missionary work and form movements.
•One of the movements was to ban alcohol.
•Connecticut minister Lyman Beecher and other reformers called for temperance-drinking little or no alcohol
- speech meant to provide information, similar to what a teacher presents
Reformers also wanted to improve education. Most schools had little money, and many teachers lacked training.
•Some people opposed the idea of compulsory, or required, education.
•Parents often keep girls at home and African Americans were denied by many schools.
•Parents thought if a girl was to be married why give them a education.
•Massachusetts lawyer Horace Mann was a leader of educational reform.
•Partly because of his efforts, in 1839 Massachusetts founded the nation's first state-supported normal school—a school for training high school graduates to become teachers.
•Other states soon adopted Mann's reforms.
•Oberlin College of Ohio was founded in 1833. The college admitted both women and African Americans.
Helping people with Disabilities
•Reformers also focused on teaching people with disabilities.
•Thomas Gallaudet developed a method to teach those with hearing impairments.
•He opened the Hartford School for the Deaf in Connecticut in 1817.
•At that same time, Samuel Gridley Howe was helping people with vision impairments.
He printed books using an alphabet created by Louis Braille, which used raised letters a person could "read" with his or her fingers.
•Howe headed the Perkins Institute, a school for the visually impaired in Boston.
•Schoolteacher Dorothea Dix began visiting prisons in 1841.
•She found some prisoners chained to the walls with little or no clothing, often in unheated cells.
•Dix also learned that some inmates were guilty of no crime.
• Instead, they were suffering from mental illnesses.
•Dix made it her life's work to educate the public about the poor conditions for prisoners and the mentally ill.
How did Samuel Howe help people with vision impairments?Howe printed books using an alphabet created by Louis Braille, which used raised letters a person could "read" with his or her fingers.
•Art and literature of the time reflected the changes in society and culture.
•Author- writer of books, articles, or other written works.
•Writers such as Margaret Fuller, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau stressed the relationship between humans and nature and the importance of the individual conscience.
•The literary movement was known as Transcendentalism.
•Thoreau practiced civil disobedience—refusal to obey laws he found unjust. For example, Thoreau went to jail in 1846 rather than pay a tax to support the Mexican American War.
•In poetry, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote narrative, or story, and poems.
•Emily Dickinson wrote hundreds of simple, deeply personal poems, many of which celebrated the natural world.
•American artists also explored American topics and developed a purely American style.
•Beginning in the 1820s, a group of landscape painters known as the Hudson River School focused on scenes of the Hudson River Valley.
•Print-makers Nathaniel Currier and James Merritt Ives created popular prints that celebrated holidays, sporting events, and rural life.
: How did the spirit of reform influence American authors? The Spirit of reform influenced Americans authors to look more at Humans and nature, individual conscience, and the injustice of slavery