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The Road to Civil War

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by

Stephen Raimondi

on 12 January 2014

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Transcript of The Road to Civil War

The Industrial North
Industrial Revolution - mid 1700's to mid 1800's

Machines used to produce goods faster than humans

James Watt - steam engine

Immigration
Great Irish Famine - 1.5 million Irish came to the United States
Lincoln Gains Popularity
"A house divided against itself cannot stand"
The Road to
Civil War

Steamboats & Railroads
1807 - Robert Fulton - the
Clermont

North Industrializes
Factories began in New England
Francis Lowell employed young farm girls
Industrialization spread throughout the North
URBANIZATION!!
Cities grow
Transportation & Communication
Businesses needed ways to move raw materials & finished products
800-mile National Road and other roads constructed
1825 - Erie Canal - connected Hudson River (NYC) & Great Lakes
By 1840 - 3,000 miles of railroad in the U.S.
Railroad became preferred mode of transportation
King Cotton
Eli Whitney - Cotton gin
Clean cotton 50X faster than by hand
Southern cotton fed growing Northern textile industry
Cotton Belt
Cotton was U.S.'s biggest export from 1807 until the end of the 1800's
Slavery Spreads
Cotton still needed to be planted & picked
More cotton farms, more slaves needed
By 1840, 2.5 million enslaved African Americans
Slavery central to Southern economy
Difference Between North & South
North
South
Agricultural
Cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, rice
Rural
Reliance on slave labor
Tradition is key
Slavery is legal
Industrial
Manufacturing
Trade
Cities
New Technology
Change = Progress
Slavery is illegal
German immigrants came to escape poor economic conditions and unstable gov't
"Push" & "Pull" immigration
Lives of Immigrants
Americans viewed immigrants as a threat to their way of life
Irish discriminated because of poverty
Religious differences
Nativism -
opposition to immigration
The Know-Nothings
Anti-immigrant group
Secret organization
The American Party - gained 40 seats in Congress
Urbanization & Reform
1800 - 1 in 20 live in urban areas
1860 - 1 in 6 live in urban areas
Immigrants live in cities
Tenements

- poorly made, crowded apartment buildings
Disease spread quickly
1820 - 5% work in factories
1860 - 30% work in factories
Birth of Urban working class
Labor Movement
- workers wanted higher wages, shorter hours, and safer conditions
Women & Reform
Women began to work outside the household
Reform Societies
- groups organized & promoted social reform (1830s & 40s)
Women reformers wanted to promote good moral behavior
Seneca Falls Convention
July 1848
Held in Seneca Falls, New York
First women's rights convention in America
Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott
Women wanted to gain political power
Stanton
Mott
Abolitionist Movement
Underground Railroad
- series of escape routes for slaves
Abolitionists wanted to end slavery
William Lloyd Garrison
published newspapers pushing for immediate abolition
Harriet Tubman
Sojourner Truth
Fredrick Douglass
Movement supported in the North
Expansion
Manifest Destiny
-
idea that the nation had the God-given right to all of North America
1840 -
American population had increased 6X
The Oregon Trail
-
2,000 miles
- longest & most famous trail used by migrants
Gold
Rush
1848 - Gold discovered in California
Mass migration to California
Miners & businesspeople with hopes of becoming rich
80,000 49ers
Effects of Westward Migration
Cities in the West grew - 350,000 migrants headed west
Expansion of railroad tracks
1850 - California becomes the 31st state
Oregon Treaty - 49th parallel becomes U.S. / Canadian border
James K. Polk
U.S.A.
Canada
Texas
Spainish claimed Texas, but only had 3 settlements there
Stephen F. Austin was bringing settlers to establish colonies in Texas
By 1830 - over 30,000 settlers
Mexico was independent
Both American & Mexican settlers lived in Texas
Texas Revolution
Americans lived in Texas just as they had in the U.S.
Mexico wanted to eliminate American influence in Texas
Mexico was afraid that the U.S. wanted Texas
Tensions rose until conflict at the Battle of Gonzales in 1835
The Alamo & the Republic of Texas
Texans captured the Alamo
Santa Anna was furious
Texans refused to accept Mexican rule, wrote the Texas Declaration of Independence
The Alamo
Santa Anna
Santa Anna captured & forced to sign treaty to end the war
The Republic of Texas
The treaty Santa Anna signed created The Republic of Texas
Completely independent nation
Conflict with Mexico was not over
Annexation of Texas
Adding Texas fit with Manifest Destiny
Southerners wanted Texas - legal slavery
1845 - Congress annexed Texas into the United States
Problems with Mexico
Mexico was upset over losing Texas to the U.S.
The Texan/Mexican border was a dispute (Rio Grande)
Americans believed Mexico owed them money
U.S. wanted to buy land between Texas and the Pacific
Mexican-American War
1846 - U.S. declares war on Mexico for "invading our territory"
Americans easily captured New Mexico and California
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war
As a result, Mexico had to give up the
Mexican Cession
Compromise of 1850
allowed California to enter the Union as a free state and divided the Mexican Cession into 2 territories where slavery would be decided by
popular sovereignty

Fugitive Slave Act
made it illegal to assist runaway slaves

also made it legal to arrest of escaped slaves in states where slavery was illegal
North & South Further Divide
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote short stories about the horrors of slavery
Read in the North and worldwide
Angered the southerners
Kansas - Nebraska Act
May 1854
Basically erased Missouri Compromise
Slavery in Kansas & Nebraska would be decided by
popular sovereignty

Stephen Douglas
"Bleeding Kansas"
Northern "free soilers" wanted to keep Kansas free
Pro-Slavery southerners wanted to make Kansas a slave state
Violence broke out - civil war in Kansas
Birth of the Republican Party
Free Soilers, Northern Democrats, and Northern Whigs
Wanted to end "Slave Power"
1854 - Became the Republican Party
John Brown's Raid - 1859
Abolitionist who wanted to use violence
Convinced followers to raid arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia
Southerners united against his ideas

Northerners viewed him as a hero
Lincoln joined Republican Party
Lincoln became popular for
his logic and reasoning

The Election of 1860
Both Lincoln & Douglas eyed the Presidency
Republicans chose Lincoln to run
Northern Democrats chose Douglas to run
Southern Democrats chose John Bell
Lincoln wasn't on the ballot in the South
Split in the Democratic Party allowed Lincoln to win
Secession!!
One week
after Lincoln was elected, South Carolina left the Union
Jan. 1861 - Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, & Texas also seceded.
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennesse, and Arkansas warned that if the U.S. used force, they would leave as well.
Most Southerners feared that a North-controlled gov't would act against slavery
The Confederacy is Formed
Feb. 1861 - Seceded states worked to form new constitution before Lincoln took office
Chose former Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis as provisional (temporary) president
Wrote Constitution based off of the U.S. Constitution - except it protected slavery and made each state "sovereign and independent"
Confederate States of America
What is this saying?
The Civil War
Fort Sumter - first battle of the Civil War (South Carolina)
Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina seceded
Border States
- (Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri)
slave states in the Union that bordered the Confederacy
Martial Law in Maryland
North v. South
North had more people & factories
Planned to cut the south off from the rest of the world with their navy
Gen. Winfield Scott
North v. South
Cotton Diplomacy
- Confederacy planned to use their cotton to gain foreign support
First Battle of Bull Run
- neither side was truly ready -
Union ran from Confederates
No hope for short war
Weapons were improved - more deadly
Ironclads
- armored gun boats
Battle of Antietam
70,000 Union vs. 40,000 Confederates
Bloodiest single battle of the Civil War
23,000 casualties
The Emancipation Proclamation
Northerners wanted to punish Southerners
January 1, 1863 - Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation
Freed all slaves of areas in rebellion against the United States
Hoped it would weaken the South
Lincoln criticized for not freeing slaves where he actually had power
Civil War Drafts
Conscription
- forced military service in the Confederacy
Copperheads
- anti-draft group in the North
Lincoln had to suspend
habeas corpus
- constitutional right of an arrested person to appear in court
Advantages of Each Side
North
South
Industry

Population

Railroads
Fighting for freedom

Military Generals

Home field advantage
Final Campaigns of the Civil War
As the Union took more land, they focused in on Atlanta
Confederate army was weakened
100,000 Union vs. 60,000 Confederates - North destroyed Atlanta
Hope was lost for the South
13th
Amendment
Union's capture of Atlanta gave Lincoln much support
Lincoln's re-election gave him more influence in Congress
13th Amendment - ended slavery in the United States
The War Comes to an End
Sherman
Robert E. Lee
After Sherman captured Atlanta, he marched his troops through Georgia burning everything
Grant
Grant took Richmond, Virginia for the Union
Lee and Grant met in Appomattox to sign the Confederates' surrender
By May 1865 the Civil War was officially over
Full transcript