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Brain Structure and Function

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Karly Schultz

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of Brain Structure and Function

Brain Structure and Function Frontal Lobe Functions:
1. Recognize future consequences Parietal Lobe
-The parietal lobe location is sitting between the occipital lobe above it and behind the frontal lobe
-The main function of parietal lobe is interpretation of the position of the body in accordance to the other objects in its surroundings
-The left parietal lobe function includes the ability to understand numbers, manipulation of different objects and perform writing tasks
-The right parietal lobe function includes interpretation of spatial information and regulation of ones personality Frontal Lobe:
1. Recognize future consequences from current actions
2. Choose between good and bad actions
3. Override and suppress socially unacceptable responses
4. Determine similarities and differences between things or events
5. Retaining longer term memories which are not task-based
Location: Front of brain Occipital Lobe
1. Contains primary visual cortex
Back of brain Temporal Lobe
-The temporal lobes are situated on either sides of the brain, just above the ears
-Speech, Memory, Reading, Emotional responses, Auditory responses, and Visual processes Corpus Callosum
-Directionally, the corpus callosum is located underneath the cerebrum at the center of the brain
-Communication Between Brain Hemispheres-Eye Movement-Maintaining the Balance of Arousal and Attention-Tactile Localization Pons and Midbrain
-Directionally, the pons is superior to the medulla oblongata and inferior to the midbrain
-Arousal-Controlling Autonomic Functions-Relaying Sensory Information Between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum-Sleep Cerebrum:
-Brain as a whole
-The cerebrum is the most superior region of the vertebrate central nervous system in humans Sensory and Motor Area: Sulci and Gyri:
-The inferior frontal gyrus is one of four such gyri in the frontal lobe
-Between them are grooves of varying depth called sulci (singular, sulcum) or fissures
-The frontal lobe is crossed over by three sulci, which divide the frontal lobe into four gyri
-Scientists have found that some of these gyri are involved in things like self-awareness and laughter
-The sulci help divide the brain into the four brain lobes Functions:
1. Plan, control, and execute voluntary motor movements Thalamus:
-located between the mid-brain and fore-brain
-Its basic function in the brain is to process and relay movement and sensory information Thalamus Medulla Oblongata:
1. Controls autonomic functions
2. Connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord
3. Responsible for regulating several basic functions of the autonomic nervous system
Location: Lower half of the brain stem Pineal Gland
-Directionally, the pineal gland is situated between the cerebral hemispheres, attached to the third ventricle
-Secretion of the Hormone Melatonin
-Regulation of Endocrine Functions
-Conversion of Nervous System Signals to Endocrine Signals
-Causes Feeling of Sleepiness
-Influences Sexual Development Cerebellum
1. Motor control
2. Also been connected to language, attention, and motor imagery
Location: Meninges and Skull
-The meninges are membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. The meninges consist of the pia mater, dura mater and the arachnoid
-Protects Cranial Nerves and Spinal Cord Reticular Formation:
1. Somatic motor control - Some motor neurons send their axons to the reticular formation nuclei, giving rise to the reticulospinal tracts of the spinal cord. These tracts function in maintaining tone, balance, and posture--especially during body movements.
2. Cardiovascular control - The reticular formation includes the cardiac and vasomotor centers of the medulla oblongata.
3. Pain modulation - The reticular formation is one means by which pain signals from the lower body reach the cerebral cortex.
4. Sleep and consciousness - It plays a central role in states of consciousness like alertness and sleep.
5. Habituation - This is a process in which the brain learns to ignore repetitive, meaningless stimuli while remaining sensitive to others. Location: Diencephalon:
1. gives rise to posterior forebrain structures including the thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior portion of the pituitary gland, and pineal gland. Basal Ganglia
-The basal ganglia is located deep within the cerebral hemispheres in the telencephalon region of the brain
-Controls Cognition
-Movement Coordination
-Voluntary Movement Location: Ventricles
-The lateral ventricles are two curved shaped cavities located within the cerebrum
-Protects the Brain From Trauma
-Provides Pathway for the Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypothalamus:
1. link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
2. metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system Location: Hippocampus:
-The hippocampus is located within the temporal lobes
-Consolidation of New Memories
-Emotional Responses
-Spatial Orientation Pituitary Gland:
Growth (Excess of HGH can lead to gigantism and acromegaly.)
Blood pressure
Breast milk production
Sex organ functions in both males and females
Thyroid gland function
The conversion of food into energy (metabolism)
Water and osmolarity regulation in the body
Water balance via the control of reabsorption of water by the kidneys
Temperature regulation
Pain relief Location: The Limbic System
-The limbic system is a complex set of structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, just under the cerebrum
-This includes the Hypothalamus and Hippocampus
-The Limbic System is the area of the brain that regulates emotion and memory
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